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J Vasc Surg. 2015 Sep;62(3):551-61. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2015.04.389. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

Type II endoleak with or without intervention after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair does not change aneurysm-related outcomes despite sac growth.

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Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif.
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, Calif.
Division of Vascular Surgery, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, NH.
Department of Surgery, University of California, San Francisco-East Bay Medical Center, Oakland, Calif.
Division of Vascular Surgery, The Permanente Medical Group, San Francisco, Calif.
Division of Vascular Surgery, The Permanente Medical Group, Santa Clara, Calif.
Division of Vascular Surgery, The Permanente Medical Group, South San Francisco, Calif. Electronic address:



There is considerable controversy about the significance and appropriate treatment of type II endoleaks (T2Ls) after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). We report our long-term experience with T2L management in a large multicenter registry.


Between 2000 and 2010, 1736 patients underwent EVAR, and we recorded the incidence of T2L. Primary outcomes were mortality and aneurysm-related mortality (ARM). Secondary outcomes were change in aneurysm sac size, major adverse events, and reintervention.


During the follow-up (median of 32.2 months; interquartile range, 14.2-52.8 months), T2L was identified in 474 patients (27.3%). There were no late abdominal aortic aneurysm ruptures attributable to a T2L. Overall mortality (P = .47) and ARM (P = .26) did not differ between patients with and without T2L. Sac growth (median, 5 mm; interquartile range, 2-10 mm) was seen in 213 (44.9%) of the patients with T2L. Of these patients with a T2L and sac growth, 36 (16.9%) had an additional type of endoleak. Of all patients with T2L, 111 (23.4%) received reinterventions, including 39 patients who underwent multiple procedures; 74% of the reinterventions were performed in patients with sac growth. Reinterventions included lumbar embolization in 66 patients (59.5%), placement of additional stents in 48 (43.2%), open surgical revision in 14 (12.6%), and direct sac injection in 22 (19.8%). The reintervention was successful in 35 patients (31.5%). After patients with other types of endoleak were excluded, no difference in overall all-cause mortality (P = .57) or ARM (P = .09) was observed between patients with T2L-associated sac growth who underwent reintervention and those in whom T2L was left untreated.


In our multicenter EVAR registry, overall all-cause mortality and ARM were unaffected by the presence of a T2L. Moreover, patients who were simply observed for T2L-associated sac growth had aneurysm-related outcomes similar to those in patients who underwent reintervention. Our future work will investigate the most cost-effective ways to select patients for intervention besides sac growth alone.

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