Send to

Choose Destination
Res Dev Disabil. 2015 Jun-Jul;41-42:52-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2015.05.006. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

Foot pressure distribution in children with cerebral palsy while standing.

Author information

Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy; IRCCS "San Raffaele Pisana", Tosinvest Sanità, Rome, Italy.
Department of Electronics, Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:
Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Children's University Hospital Basel (UKBB), Basel, Switzerland.
IRCCS "San Raffaele Pisana", Tosinvest Sanità, Rome, Italy.


Foot deformity is a major component of impaired functioning in cerebral palsy (CP). While gait and balance issues related to CP have been studied extensively, there is little information to date on foot-ground interaction (i.e. contact area and plantar pressure distribution). This study aimed to characterize quantitatively the foot-ground contact parameters during static upright standing in hemiplegia and diplegia. We studied 64 children with hemiplegia (mean age 8.2 years; SD 2.8 years) and 43 with diplegia (mean age 8.8 years; SD 2.3 years) while standing on both legs statically on a pressure sensitive mat. We calculated pressure data for the whole foot and sub-regions (i.e. rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot) and average contact pressure. The Arch Index (AI) served for classifying the feet as flat, normal or cavus feet. The data were compared with those from a sample of age- and gender-matched participants (control group, 68 children). Most of the feet showed very high AI values, thus indicating a flat foot. This deformity was more common in diplegia (74.4%) than in hemiplegia (54.7%). In both diplegic and hemiplegic children, average plantar pressure was significantly increased in the forefoot and midfoot and decreased in the rearfoot (p<0.001). The present data indicate an increased load on the front parts of the foot, which may be due to plantarflexor overactivity or knee flexion, combined with an increased incidence of low foot arches. As a low foot arch does not necessarily increase forefoot load, this deformity can be regarded as secondary.


Arch Index plantar pressure; Cerebral palsy; Foot; Posture; Rehabilitation; Standing

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center