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Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol. 2015;42(2):212-9.

Intimate partner violence among Egyptian pregnant women: incidence, risk factors, and adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.



To assess incidence and risk factors of intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy among a sample of women from Egypt and to evaluate its impact on maternal and fetal adverse health outcomes.


After obtaining ethical approval, a total of 1,857 women aged 18 - 43 years completed the study and were investigated using an interview questionnaire. The questionnaire contains five main items: demographic characteristics of women, intimate partner characteristics, assessment of IPV during current pregnancy, and assessment of maternal as well as fetal/neonatal adverse outcomes. Women were also examined to detect signs of violence and identify injuries.


Exposure to IPV during pregnancy was reported among 44.1% of the studied women. Emotional violence was the most common form. Women exposed to violence were of younger age, higher parity, and lower educational level. Their partners were older, less educated, and more likely to be addicted to drugs and alcohol. Women were also found to have significantly higher incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (miscarriage, preterm labor, and premature rupture of membrane), and fetal/neonatal adverse outcomes (fetal distress, fetal death, and low birth weight). A total of 297 cases had been exposed to physical violence (15.9%) vs 32.6% and 10% exposed to emotional and sexual violence, respectively. The most common form of physical violence was kicking.


Violence during pregnancy is prevalent among Egyptian women. Exposure to violence was a significant risk factor for multiple adverse maternal and fetal health outcomes.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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