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Nat Rev Microbiol. 2015 Jul;13(7):414-25. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro3471. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Bottlenecks in HIV-1 transmission: insights from the study of founder viruses.

Author information

1
1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
2
1] Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [3] UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
3
1] UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.
4
1] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [2] UNC Center for AIDS Research, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA. [3] Institute of Global Health and Infectious Diseases, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA.

Abstract

HIV-1 infection typically results from the transmission of a single viral variant, the transmitted/founder (T/F) virus. Studies of these HIV-1 variants provide critical information about the transmission bottlenecks and the selective pressures acting on the virus in the transmission fluid and in the recipient tissues. These studies reveal that T/F virus phenotypes are shaped by stochastic and selective forces that restrict transmission and may be targets for prevention strategies. In this Review, we highlight how studies of T/F viruses contribute to a better understanding of the biology of HIV-1 transmission and discuss how these findings affect HIV-1 prevention strategies.

PMID:
26052661
PMCID:
PMC4793885
DOI:
10.1038/nrmicro3471
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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