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Curr Transplant Rep. 2015 Mar 1;2(1):81-89.

Development of Lung Epithelium from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

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Departments of Anesthesia and Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, 06520, USA.


Considerable progress has been made in the field of in vitro development of alveolar epithelium from induced pluripotent stem cells. Patient specific derived alveolar cells could potentially populate tissue engineered lungs, provide a cell source for drug testing or function as a model for research into lung diseases. Induced to pluripotency through a variety of techniques, stem cells can be differentiated to alveolar epithelium through exposure to a variety of different culture conditions and growth media. The ultimate success of differentiated cells for translational medicine applications will depend on further advances in the understanding of the human lung developmental pathway, and successful application to in vitro culture. In this review will focus the major signaling pathways and molecules in lung development and the existing protocol for directed different ion of iPSC and hESC to cells resembling respiratory epithelium in vitro.


Pluripotent stem cells; differentiation; lung epithelial cells

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