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Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2016 May 18;56(7):1193-208. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2012.758625.

Functional Characteristics of Milk Protein Concentrates and Their Modification.

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a Institute of Agro-Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences , Beijing , P. R. China.
b Agricultural Engineering Department , Bunda College of Agriculture, Faculty of Agriculture , Lilongwe , Malawi.


A major deterrent to the usage of milk protein concentrate (MPC), a high-protein milk product with increasing demand as a food and sports drink ingredient, has been its poor functional characteristics when compared with other milk protein products such as whey protein concentrate and sodium caseinates. This review discusses the recent research on functional properties of MPC, focusing on factors that may contribute to the poor functional characteristics before, during, and after production. Current research, methods employed, and new understanding on the causes of poor solubility of MPC at mild temperatures (about 20°C) has been presented, including loss of solubility during storage as these areas have received unprecedented attention over the past decade, and also affects other useful functional properties of MPC, such as emulsifying properties, gelation, and foaming. Processing methods, which include heat treatment, high-pressure application, microwave heating, ultrasound application, and enzyme and salts modification, have been used or have potential to modify or improve the functional properties of MPCs. Future research on the effects of these processing methods on the functional properties, including effects of enzyme hydrolysis on bitterness and bioactivity, has also been discussed.


Milk protein concentrate; functional properties; processing; solubility

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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