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J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Oct;45(10):3183-94. doi: 10.1007/s10803-015-2476-8.

Autism spectrum disorder symptoms among children enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED).

Author information

1
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road MS E-86, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA. lwiggins@cdc.gov.
2
Center for Autism Research, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
3
Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
4
Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.
5
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road MS E-86, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA.
6
Autism Research Program, Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland, CA, USA.
7
Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
8
School of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
9
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
10
School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
11
JFK Partners, University of Colorado-Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
12
Emory Autism Research Center, Emory University, Druid Hills, GA, USA.
13
Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.
14
Section for Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Aarhus University, Åarhus, Denmark.
15
Department of Economics and Business, National Centre for Register-Based Research, Aarhus University, Åarhus, Denmark.
16
Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Abstract

This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive, behavioral, and social functioning and the presence of parent-reported conditions. Children with ASD and DD with ASD symptoms had mild to severe ASD risk on several measures compared to children with other DD and POP who had little ASD risk across measures. We conclude that children in SEED have varying degrees of ASD impairment and associated deficits. SEED thus provides a valuable sample to explore ASD phenotypes and inform risk factor analyses.

KEYWORDS:

Autism; Etiology; Phenotype; Study to Explore Early Development; Symptoms

PMID:
26048040
PMCID:
PMC4573234
DOI:
10.1007/s10803-015-2476-8
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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