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Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015 Aug 1;132:225-35. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2015.05.022. Epub 2015 May 21.

Wheat germ agglutinin anchored chitosan microspheres of reduced brominated derivative of noscapine ameliorated acute inflammation in experimental colitis.

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Department of Pharmaceutics, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Mohali, Panjab, India.
Department of Pharmacology, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Mohali, Panjab, India.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar Centre for Biomedical Research, University of Delhi, Delhi, India.
Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA.
University Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India.
Department of Pharmaceutics, Chandigarh College of Pharmacy, Mohali, Panjab, India. Electronic address:


Reduced brominated derivative of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos, EM012), has potent anti-inflammatory property. However, physicochemical limitations of Red-Br-Nos like low aqueous solubility (0.43×10(-3) g/mL), high lipophilicity (logP∼2.94) and ionization at acidic pH greatly encumber the scale-up of oral drug delivery systems for the management of colitis. Therefore, in present investigation, chitosan microspheres bearing Red-Br-Nos (CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) were prepared by emulsion polymerization method and later coated with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) to boost the bioadhesive property. The mean particle size and zeta-potential of CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos were measured to be 10.5±5.4 μm and 8.1±2.2 mV, significantly (P<0.05) lesser than, 30.2±3.2 μm and 19.2±2.3 mV of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos. Furthermore, various spectral techniques like SEM, FT-IR, DSC and PXRD substantiated that Red-Br-Nos was molecularly dispersed in tailored microspheres in amorphous state. Surface bioadhesive property of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos promoted the affinity toward colon mucin cells in simulated colonic fluid (SCF, pH∼7.2). In vitro release studies carried out on WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos indicated that SCF with colitis milieu (pH∼4.7) favored the controlled release of Red-Br-Nos, owing to solubilization at acidic pH. Consistently, in vivo investigation also demonstrated the utility of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos, which remarkably attenuated the DSS encouraged neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in C57BL6J mice, as compared to CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and Red-Br-Nos suspension. The noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos against acute colitis may be attributed to enhanced drug delivery, affinity and utmost drug exposure at inflamed mucosal layers of colon. In conclusion, WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos warrants further in-depth in vitro and in vivo investigations to scale-up the technology for clinical translation.


Chitosan; Colitis; Inflammation; Red-Br-Nos; Wheat germ agglutinin

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