Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Neurovirol. 2016 Feb;22(1):14-21. doi: 10.1007/s13365-015-0355-x. Epub 2015 Jun 6.

The brain's Geppetto-microbes as puppeteers of neural function and behaviour?

Author information

1
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. rstilling@ucc.ie.
2
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. rstilling@ucc.ie.
3
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
4
Department of Psychiatry, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
5
Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. j.cryan@ucc.ie.
6
Department of Anatomy and Neuroscience, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. j.cryan@ucc.ie.

Abstract

Research on the microbiome and its interaction with various host organs, including the brain, is increasingly gaining momentum. With more evidence establishing a comprehensive microbiota-gut-brain axis, questions have been raised as to the extent to which microbes influence brain physiology and behaviour. In parallel, there is a growing literature showing active behavioural manipulation in favour of the microbe for certain parasites. However, it seems unclear where the hidden majority of microbes are localised on the parasitism-mutualism spectrum. A long evolutionary history intimately connects host and microbiota, which complicates this classification. In this conceptual minireview, we discuss current hypotheses on host-microbe interaction and argue that novel experimental approaches and theoretical concepts, such as the hologenome theory, are necessary to incorporate transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of the microbiome into evolutionary theories.

KEYWORDS:

Co-evolution; Commensal; Epigenetics; Host behaviour; Host ecology; Metagenome; Neurovirus; Parasite

PMID:
26047662
DOI:
10.1007/s13365-015-0355-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center