Send to

Choose Destination
Public Health. 2015 Jun;129(6):740-7. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.03.019. Epub 2015 Jun 2.

Association between breakfast intake with anthropometric measurements, blood pressure and food consumption behaviors among Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-IV study.

Author information

Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Public Health, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
Child Growth and Development Research Center, Research Institute for Primordial Prevention of Non-communicable Disease, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.
Department of School Health, Bureau of Population, Family and School Health, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Pediatrics, Ahvaz University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
Department of Medical Emergencies, Qom University of Medical Sciences, Qom, Iran.
Bureau of Health and Fitness, Ministry of Education and Training, Tehran, Iran.
Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Chronic Diseases Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Population Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:



The aim of this study is to assess the association between breakfast intake with anthropometric measurements and blood pressure among Iranian children and adolescents. The second goal is to investigate the correction of breakfast consumption with other food consumption behaviors.


In this national survey, 13,486 children and adolescents, aged 6-18 years, were selected by multistage, cluster sampling method from rural and urban areas of 31 provinces of Iran (2011-2012). Physical measurements included height, weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Food habits were assessed by self-reported questionnaire. Breakfast frequency was defined as skippers (eating breakfast 0-2 days/week), semi-skippers (eating breakfast 3-4 days/week) and non-skippers (eating breakfast 5-7 days/week). The data were analyzed by the STATA package.


Of the participants, 18.9%, 13.2% and 67.9%, were breakfast skippers, semi-skippers and non-skippers respectively. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among breakfast skippers were higher than non-skippers counterparts (P-value < 0.001). The percentage rates of abdominal obesity among breakfast skippers and non-skippers group were 22.6% (CI 95%: 21-24.3) and 17.9% (CI 95%: 17-18.6), respectively. Blood pressure did not significantly differ between non-skippers students and breakfast skippers (P-value = 0.1). Non-skipping adolescents ate more fresh fruits, dried fruits, vegetables and drank milk more frequently compared with breakfast skipper; while the skippers showed a higher intake of salty snack, soft drinks, packed fruit juice and fast foods (all P-value < 0.001).


Regular breakfast consumption is significantly associated with lower body fatness and healthier dietary habits but that further study, using controlled intervention trials, is required to test whether this represents a causal relationship.


Adolescents; BMI; Breakfast skipping; Obesity

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center