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Hematol Oncol Clin North Am. 2015 Jun;29(3):445-53. doi: 10.1016/j.hoc.2015.01.001. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

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Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 1830 East Monument Street, Baltimore, MD 21230, USA. Electronic address:


Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is defined as the destruction of circulating red blood cells (RBCs) in the setting of anti-RBC autoantibodies that optimally react at 37°C. The pathophysiology of disease involves phagocytosis of autoantibody-coated RBCs in the spleen and complement-mediated hemolysis. Thus far, treatment is aimed at decreasing autoantibody production with immunosuppression or reducing phagocytosis of affected cells in the spleen. The role of complement inhibitors in warm AIHA has not been explored. This article addresses the diagnosis, etiology, and treatment of warm AIHA and highlights the role of complement in disease pathology.


Autoimmune hemolytic anemia; Complement; Direct antiglobulin test; Spherocyte

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