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Head Neck. 2016 Apr;38 Suppl 1:E2259-66. doi: 10.1002/hed.24152. Epub 2015 Jul 18.

Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal region.

Author information

1
Department of Pathology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
2
Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
3
Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.
4
Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, School of Dentistry, University of Liverpool and Cellular Pathology, University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
5
Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri.
6
Department of Anatomic Pathology, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
7
Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
8
Sahlgrenska Cancer Center, Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
9
Head and Neck Pathology, University Pathologists, Warwick, Rhode Island and Fall River, Massachusetts.
10
Department of Pathology, Allegiance Health, Jackson, Michigan.
11
Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias, Oviedo, Spain.
12
Instituto Universitario de Oncología del Principado de Asturias, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.
13
University of Udine School of Medicine, Udine, Italy.
14
Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York.
15
Departments of Pathology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, Maryland.
16
Departamento de Ciências, Biomédicas e Medicina, Universidade do Algavre, Faro, Portugal.
17
Department of Pathology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas.
18
Pathology Division, Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital and Research Institute, Shizuoka, Japan.
19
Department of Pathology, Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
20
Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
21
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
22
Coordinator of the International Head and Neck Scientific Group.

Abstract

Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the sinonasal region, which are relatively uncommon but clinically very important, are reviewed here in the light of current knowledge. Using a definition for neuroendocrine based on phenotypic, histologic, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic features rather than histogenetic criteria, sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinomas are examined with a particular emphasis on the small-cell and large-cell subtypes. This is followed by revisiting olfactory neuroblastoma because it is also a tumor that shows a neuroendocrine phenotype. Kadish clinical and Hyams histologic grading systems as prognosticators of olfactory neuroblastoma are also considered in detail. Finally, controversies regarding sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma as a neuroendocrine tumor are discussed and a possible relationship with high-grade olfactory neuroblastoma is explored. Genetic events and current management of these tumors are also outlined.

KEYWORDS:

immunohistochemistry; neuroendocrine neoplasms; olfactory neuroblastoma; sinonasal carcinoma; sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma

PMID:
26041714
DOI:
10.1002/hed.24152
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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