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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2015 Aug 1;309(3):R286-94. doi: 10.1152/ajpregu.00031.2015. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Regular postexercise cooling enhances mitochondrial biogenesis through AMPK and p38 MAPK in human skeletal muscle.

Author information

1
Sports Physiology Department, Singapore Sports Institute, Singapore; Centre for Exercise and Sport Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia; Ihsan_Abdullah@sport.gov.sg.
2
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;
3
School of Human Life Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Australia; and.
4
Centre for Exercise and Sport Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia; Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
5
Centre for Exercise and Sport Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia;

Abstract

This study investigated the effect of regular postexercise cold water immersion (CWI) on muscle aerobic adaptations to endurance training. Eight males performed 3 sessions/wk of endurance training for 4 wk. Following each session, subjects immersed one leg in a cold water bath (10°C; COLD) for 15 min, while the contralateral leg served as a control (CON). Muscle biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis of both CON and COLD legs prior to training and 48 h following the last training session. Samples were analyzed for signaling kinases: p38 MAPK and AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), enzyme activities indicative of mitochondrial biogenesis, and protein subunits representative of respiratory chain complexes I-V. Following training, subjects' peak oxygen uptake and running velocity were improved by 5.9% and 6.2%, respectively (P < 0.05). Repeated CWI resulted in higher total AMPK, phosphorylated AMPK, phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase, β-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase and the protein subunits representative of complex I and III (P < 0.05). Moreover, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were noted with changes in protein content of p38 (d = 1.02, P = 0.064), PGC-1α (d = 0.99, P = 0.079), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (d = 0.93, P = 0.10) in COLD compared with CON. No differences between conditions were observed in the representative protein subunits of respiratory complexes II, IV, and V and in the activities of several mitochondrial enzymes (P > 0.05). These findings indicate that regular CWI enhances p38, AMPK, and possibly mitochondrial biogenesis.

KEYWORDS:

PGC-1α; cold water immersion; exercise recovery; muscle oxidative adaptations; nonshivering thermogenesis

PMID:
26041108
DOI:
10.1152/ajpregu.00031.2015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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