Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Environ Geochem Health. 2015 Aug;37(4):631-49. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9720-1. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk.

Author information

1
NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Facility of Life Sciences and Medicine, King's College London, 150 Stamford Street, London, SE1 9NH, UK, frank.kelly@kcl.ac.uk.

Abstract

Despite past improvements in air quality, very large parts of the population in urban areas breathe air that does not meet European standards let alone the health-based World Health Organisation Air Quality Guidelines. Over the last 10 years, there has been a substantial increase in findings that particulate matter (PM) air pollution is not only exerting a greater impact on established health endpoints, but is also associated with a broader number of disease outcomes. Data strongly suggest that effects have no threshold within the studied range of ambient concentrations, can occur at levels close to PM2.5 background concentrations and that they follow a mostly linear concentration-response function. Having firmly established this significant public health problem, there has been an enormous effort to identify what it is in ambient PM that affects health and to understand the underlying biological basis of toxicity by identifying mechanistic pathways-information that in turn will inform policy makers how best to legislate for cleaner air. Another intervention in moving towards a healthier environment depends upon the achieving the right public attitude and behaviour by the use of optimal air pollution monitoring, forecasting and reporting that exploits increasingly sophisticated information systems. Improving air quality is a considerable but not an intractable challenge. Translating the correct scientific evidence into bold, realistic and effective policies undisputedly has the potential to reduce air pollution so that it no longer poses a damaging and costly toll on public health.

PMID:
26040976
PMCID:
PMC4516868
DOI:
10.1007/s10653-015-9720-1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center