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Epilepsia. 2015 Aug;56(8):1198-206. doi: 10.1111/epi.13044. Epub 2015 Jun 4.

Genetic variation in the adenosine regulatory cycle is associated with posttraumatic epilepsy development.

Author information

1
Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
2
Department of Pharmacology and Chemical Biology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
3
Department of Health Promotion and Human Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
4
Safar Center for Resuscitation Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
5
Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.
6
RS Dow Neurobiology Labs, Legacy Research Institute, Portland, Oregon, U.S.A.
7
Center for Neuroscience, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Determine if genetic variation in enzymes/transporters influencing extracellular adenosine homeostasis, including adenosine kinase (ADK), [ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E), cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73)], and equilibrative nucleoside transporter type-1 (ENT-1), is significantly associated with epileptogenesis and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) risk, as indicated by time to first seizure analyses.

METHODS:

Nine ADK, three CD73, and two ENT-1 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 162 white adults with moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and no history of premorbid seizures. Kaplan-Meier models were used to screen for genetic differences in time to first seizure occurring >1 week post-TBI. SNPs remaining significant after correction for multiple comparisons were examined using Cox proportional hazards analyses, adjusting for subdural hematoma, injury severity score, and isolated TBI status. SNPs significant in multivariate models were then entered simultaneously into an adjusted Cox model.

RESULTS:

Comparing Kaplan-Meier curves, rs11001109 (ADK) rare allele homozygosity and rs9444348 (NT5E) heterozygosity were significantly associated with shorter time to first seizure and an increased seizure rate 3 years post-TBI. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models showed that these genotypes remained significantly associated with increased PTE hazard up to 3 years post-TBI after controlling for variables of interest (rs11001109: hazard ratio (HR) 4.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-15.77, p = 0.020; rs9444348: HR 2.95, 95% CI 1.19-7.31, p = 0.019) .

SIGNIFICANCE:

Genetic variation in ADK and NT5E may help explain variability in time to first seizure and PTE risk, independent of previously identified risk factors, after TBI. Once validated, identifying genetic variation in adenosine regulatory pathways relating to epileptogenesis and PTE may facilitate exploration of therapeutic targets and pharmacotherapy development.

KEYWORDS:

Adenosine; Epileptogenesis; Genetics; Posttraumatic epilepsy; Rehabilomics; Traumatic brain injury

PMID:
26040919
PMCID:
PMC4523397
DOI:
10.1111/epi.13044
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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