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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 9;112(23):7165-70. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1508815112. Epub 2015 May 26.

Metformin increases degradation of phospholamban via autophagy in cardiomyocytes.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7; Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7;
2
Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L6;
3
Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7; University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1Y 4W7;
4
Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7;
5
Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L6; david.maclennan@utoronto.ca anthony.gramolini@utoronto.ca.
6
Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7; Toronto General Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7; Ted Rogers Centre for Heart Research, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 1L7 david.maclennan@utoronto.ca anthony.gramolini@utoronto.ca.

Abstract

Phospholamban (PLN) is an effective inhibitor of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA). Here, we examined PLN stability and degradation in primary cultured mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes (CMNCs) and mouse hearts using immunoblotting, molecular imaging, and [(35)S]methionine pulse-chase experiments, together with lysosome (chloroquine and bafilomycin A1) and autophagic (3-methyladenine and Atg5 siRNA) antagonists. Inhibiting lysosomal and autophagic activities promoted endogenous PLN accumulation, whereas accelerating autophagy with metformin enhanced PLN degradation in CMNCs. This reduction in PLN levels was functionally correlated with an increased rate of SERCA2a activity, accounting for an inotropic effect of metformin. Metabolic labeling reaffirmed that metformin promoted wild-type and R9C PLN degradation. Immunofluorescence showed that PLN and the autophagy marker, microtubule light chain 3, became increasingly colocalized in response to chloroquine and bafilomycin treatments. Mechanistically, pentameric PLN was polyubiquitinylated at the K3 residue and this modification was required for p62-mediated selective autophagy trafficking. Consistently, attenuated autophagic flux in HECT domain and ankyrin repeat-containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1-null mouse hearts was associated with increased PLN levels determined by immunoblots and immunofluorescence. Our study identifies a biological mechanism that traffics PLN to the lysosomes for degradation in mouse hearts.

KEYWORDS:

protein degradation; selective autophagy; ubiquitinylation

PMID:
26040000
PMCID:
PMC4466728
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1508815112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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