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N Engl J Med. 2015 Jun 4;372(23):2197-206. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1414266.

Follow-up of glycemic control and cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes.

Collaborators (280)

Abraira C, Duckworth WC, Paul C, Arca D, Cason L, Zolotor RM, Williams L, Collier SL, Ahmed N, Boyd A, Reda D, Moritz T, Anderson R, Vitek ME, Paine T, Thottapurathu L, Luo P, Bukowski K, Motyka D, Barillas V, Brown R, Christine B, Anfinsen L, Biondic M, Havlicek R, Kubal J, McAuliffe M, McCarren M, Rachelle M, Rose L, Sacks J, Sindowski T, Thomas J, Zahora C, Sather MR, Warren S, Day J, Haroldson J, Abraira C, Duckworth W, Davis SN, Emanuele N, Goldman S, Hayward R, Marks J, Moritz T, Reaven P, Reda D, Warren S, Zieve F, Wendell W, Haroldson J, Harper P, Henderson WG, Henry RR, Kirkman M, McCarren M, Sacks J, Gavin J 3rd, Chew E, Howard B, Karrison T, Pacold IV, Seigel D, Vinicor F, Massie B, Goldman S, Rapcsak S, Sethi G, Sharon M, Thai H, Zadina K, Christensen J, Morrison D, Spooner P, Westerband A, Materson B, Brinton E, Klein R, Colwell JA, Schaefer EJ, Gass CS, Ehrmann DA, Rue P, Schaefer EJ, McNamara JR, Brophy M, Humphries D, Govan D, McDonnell L, Carlton L, Weng Y, Hayward RA, Krein S, Goldman S, Zadina K, Soule J, Caulder S, Pittman C, Alston O, Mayfield RK, Moffitt G, Sagel J, Sanacor F, Ganaway E, Marks J, Okur L, Jones L, Florez H, Pfeifer D, Samos L, Taylor AL, Zimering MB, Sama A, Rosenberg F, Garcia H, Ertel N, Pogach L, Shin JJ, Caldarella F, Carseli C, Shah M, Ginier P, Arakel G, Fu Y, Tayloe D, Allen JE, Fox E, Hensley PG, Emanuele N, Kahsen K, Linnerud P, Agrawal L, Azad N, Marcelli M, Cunningham GR, Nichols NM, Cordero E, Hijazi R, Roman F, Datta P, Touza MG, Lteif A, Moore KL, Lazar-Robinson C, Gupta S, Kirkman M, Mendez M, Haider Z, Risley L, Karounos D, Barber L, Hibbard J, Anderson JW, Reynolds L, Carlsen J, Collins RW, Ehtisham A, Kashyap ML, Matheus B, Rahbarnia T, Vo AN, Downey N, Fox L, Gonzales RM, Meyers C, Tavintharan S, Nuttall FQ, Cupersmith L, Dardick K, Kollman L, Georgopoulos A, Niewoehner C, Davis SN, Harper P, Davis D, Devin J, Marney A, Passyn-Dunn J, Perkins J, Stafford J, Powers A, Balch L, Harris P, Anderson RJ, Dunning D, Ludwig S, Vogel M, DeSouza C, Ecklund R, Doran S, Korolchuk C, McElmeel M, Wagstaff S, Reaven P, Solie B, Matchette J, Meyer C, Vela S, Aslam N, Brinton E, Clark J, Domb A, McDonald L, Shurtz L, Rao R, Beattie JN, Franko C, DeRubertis FR, Kelly D, Maser M, Paul J, Zieve F, Clark SJ, Grimsdale A, Fredrickson S, Levy J, Schroeder D, Iranmanesh A, Dunn B, Arsura D, Kovesdy C, Hanna S, Iranmanesh A, Florow C, Remandaban F, Smith E, Henry RR, Keller M, Aroda V, Choe C, Edelman S, Gasper A, MaFong D, Mudaliar S, Oh D, Bandukwala R, Chang A, Chaudhary S, Chinnapongse S, Christiansen L, Chu N, Kim D, Lupo M, Chandran M, Plodkowski R, Sathyaprakash R, Wilson J, Yu J, Macaraeg G, Townes S, DeFronzo R, Johnson L, Cusi K, Tripathy D, Bajaj M, Blodgett J, Kayshup S, Vasquez MH, Walz B, Weaver T, Benabe J, Mercado Z, Padilla B, Serrano-Rodriguez J, Rosado C, Mejias E, Tejera T, Geldrez C, Gonzalez-Melendez E, Natal M, Jimenez MR, Shah JH, Wendel WS, Scott L, Gurnsey LA, Kwiecinski FA, Boyden T, Goldschmid MG, Easton V.

Author information

1
From the Veterans Affairs (VA) Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System, Ann Arbor, MI (R.A.H., W.L.W.); Phoenix VA Health Care System, Phoenix, AZ (P.D.R., W.C.D.); and the Hines VA Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center and Edward Hines, Jr., VA Hospital (G.D.B., D.J.R., L.G., N.V.E.), and VA Pharmacy Benefits Management Services (M.M.) - all in Hines, IL.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial previously showed that intensive glucose lowering, as compared with standard therapy, did not significantly reduce the rate of major cardiovascular events among 1791 military veterans (median follow-up, 5.6 years). We report the extended follow-up of the study participants.

METHODS:

After the conclusion of the clinical trial, we followed participants, using central databases to identify procedures, hospitalizations, and deaths (complete cohort, with follow-up data for 92.4% of participants). Most participants agreed to additional data collection by means of annual surveys and periodic chart reviews (survey cohort, with 77.7% follow-up). The primary outcome was the time to the first major cardiovascular event (heart attack, stroke, new or worsening congestive heart failure, amputation for ischemic gangrene, or cardiovascular-related death). Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS:

The difference in glycated hemoglobin levels between the intensive-therapy group and the standard-therapy group averaged 1.5 percentage points during the trial (median level, 6.9% vs. 8.4%) and declined to 0.2 to 0.3 percentage points by 3 years after the trial ended. Over a median follow-up of 9.8 years, the intensive-therapy group had a significantly lower risk of the primary outcome than did the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 0.99; P=0.04), with an absolute reduction in risk of 8.6 major cardiovascular events per 1000 person-years, but did not have reduced cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.20; P=0.42). No reduction in total mortality was evident (hazard ratio in the intensive-therapy group, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.25; P=0.54; median follow-up, 11.8 years).

CONCLUSIONS:

After nearly 10 years of follow-up, patients with type 2 diabetes who had been randomly assigned to intensive glucose control for 5.6 years had 8.6 fewer major cardiovascular events per 1000 person-years than those assigned to standard therapy, but no improvement was seen in the rate of overall survival. (Funded by the VA Cooperative Studies Program and others; VADT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00032487.).

PMID:
26039600
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa1414266
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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