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PLoS One. 2015 Jun 3;10(6):e0126536. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0126536. eCollection 2015.

Particulate matter from both heavy fuel oil and diesel fuel shipping emissions show strong biological effects on human lung cells at realistic and comparable in vitro exposure conditions.

Author information

1
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Helmholtz Zentrum München and Technische Universität München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany; CK-CARE, Christine Kühne Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos, Switzerland.
2
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Mass Spectrometry Core Unit, Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine Berlin-Buch, Germany.
3
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
4
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, University of Luxembourg, L-4362 Esch-Belval, Luxembourg.
5
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University Rostock, Rostock, Germany; Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, CMA-Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
6
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, CMA-Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
7
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
8
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Institute for Technical Chemistry (ITC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Karlsruhe, Germany; Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Karlsruhe, Germany.
9
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Institute for Technical Chemistry (ITC), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Karlsruhe, Germany.
10
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Institute of Toxicology and Genetics (ITG), Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Campus North, Karlsruhe, Germany.
11
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Chair of Piston Machines and Internal Combustion Engines, University Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
12
University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.
13
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT, Espoo, Finland.
14
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland.
15
Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Helmholtz Zentrum München and Technische Universität München, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Munich, Germany.
16
CK-CARE, Christine Kühne Center for Allergy Research and Education, Davos, Switzerland; Institute of environmental medicine, UNIKA-T, Technische Universität, Munich, Germany.
17
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Lung and Particle Research Group, School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales, United Kingdom.
18
Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Center for Environmental Health GmbH, Neuherberg, Germany.
19
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Vitrocell GmbH, Waldkirch, Germany.
20
Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland.
21
HICE-Helmholtz Virtual Institute of Complex Molecular Systems in Environmental Health-Aerosols and Health, www.hice-vi.eu, Neuherberg, Rostock, Munich, Karlsruhe, Berlin, Waldkirch, Germany, Kuopio, Finland, Cardiff, UK, Esch-Belval, Luxembourg; Institute of Physics, University Rostock, Rostock, Germany.
22
Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, CMA-Comprehensive Molecular Analytics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Neuherberg, Germany.
23
Joint Mass Spectrometry Centre, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University Rostock, Rostock, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Ship engine emissions are important with regard to lung and cardiovascular diseases especially in coastal regions worldwide. Known cellular responses to combustion particles include oxidative stress and inflammatory signalling.

OBJECTIVES:

To provide a molecular link between the chemical and physical characteristics of ship emission particles and the cellular responses they elicit and to identify potentially harmful fractions in shipping emission aerosols.

METHODS:

Through an air-liquid interface exposure system, we exposed human lung cells under realistic in vitro conditions to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on either common heavy fuel oil (HFO) or cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF). Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling including isotope labelling methods to characterise the lung cell responses.

RESULTS:

The HFO emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds such as metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and were higher in particle mass. These compounds were lower in DF emissions, which in turn had higher concentrations of elemental carbon ("soot"). Common cellular reactions included cellular stress responses and endocytosis. Reactions to HFO emissions were dominated by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses, whereas DF emissions induced generally a broader biological response than HFO emissions and affected essential cellular pathways such as energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and chromatin modification.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite a lower content of known toxic compounds, combustion particles from the clean shipping fuel DF influenced several essential pathways of lung cell metabolism more strongly than particles from the unrefined fuel HFO. This might be attributable to a higher soot content in DF. Thus the role of diesel soot, which is a known carcinogen in acute air pollution-induced health effects should be further investigated. For the use of HFO and DF we recommend a reduction of carbonaceous soot in the ship emissions by implementation of filtration devices.

PMID:
26039251
PMCID:
PMC4454644
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0126536
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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