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Nutrients. 2015 May 29;7(6):4240-70. doi: 10.3390/nu7064240.

Modulation of the immune response to respiratory viruses by vitamin D.

Author information

1
Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK. c.l.greiller@qmul.ac.uk.
2
Barts and the London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 2AB, UK. a.martineau@qmul.ac.uk.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be independently associated with increased risk of viral acute respiratory infection (ARI) in a number of observational studies, and meta-analysis of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for prevention of ARI has demonstrated protective effects. Several cellular studies have investigated the effects of vitamin D metabolites on immune responses to respiratory viruses, but syntheses of these reports are lacking.

SCOPE:

In this article, we review the literature reporting results of in vitro experiments investigating immunomodulatory actions of vitamin D metabolites in human respiratory epithelial cells infected with respiratory viruses.

KEY FINDINGS:

Vitamin D metabolites do not consistently influence replication or clearance of rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) or influenza A virus in human respiratory epithelial cell culture, although they do modulate expression and secretion of type 1 interferon, chemokines including CXCL8 and CXCL10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF and IL-6.

FUTURE RESEARCH:

More studies are needed to clarify the effects of vitamin D metabolites on respiratory virus-induced expression of cell surface markers mediating viral entry and bacterial adhesion to respiratory epithelial cells.

KEYWORDS:

antiviral immunity; respiratory viruses; vitamin D

PMID:
26035247
PMCID:
PMC4488782
DOI:
10.3390/nu7064240
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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