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PLoS One. 2015 Jun 2;10(6):e0128711. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128711. eCollection 2015.

Screening currency notes for microbial pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes using a shotgun metagenomic approach.

Author information

1
GN Ramachandran Knowledge Center for Genome Informatics, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB), Mathura Road, Delhi, 110 020, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR IGIB South Campus, Mathura Road, Delhi, 110020, India.
2
Functional Genomics Unit, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology (CSIR-IGIB), New Delhi, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR IGIB South Campus, Mathura Road, Delhi, 110020, India.
3
Structural Biology Unit, CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, New Delhi, 110 020, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR IGIB South Campus, Mathura Road, Delhi, 110020, India.
4
Respiratory Disease Biology Unit, CSIR- Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi, 110007, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR IGIB South Campus, Mathura Road, Delhi, 110020, India.
5
Genomics and Molecular Medicine Unit, CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mathura Road, Delhi, India; Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR IGIB South Campus, Mathura Road, Delhi, 110020, India.

Abstract

Fomites are a well-known source of microbial infections and previous studies have provided insights into the sojourning microbiome of fomites from various sources. Paper currency notes are one of the most commonly exchanged objects and its potential to transmit pathogenic organisms has been well recognized. Approaches to identify the microbiome associated with paper currency notes have been largely limited to culture dependent approaches. Subsequent studies portrayed the use of 16S ribosomal RNA based approaches which provided insights into the taxonomical distribution of the microbiome. However, recent techniques including shotgun sequencing provides resolution at gene level and enable estimation of their copy numbers in the metagenome. We investigated the microbiome of Indian paper currency notes using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Metagenomic DNA isolated from samples of frequently circulated denominations of Indian currency notes were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencer. Analysis of the data revealed presence of species belonging to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genera. The taxonomic distribution at kingdom level revealed contigs mapping to eukaryota (70%), bacteria (9%), viruses and archae (~1%). We identified 78 pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Enterococcus faecalis, and 75 cellulose degrading organisms including Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Cellulomonas flavigena and Ruminococcus albus. Additionally, 78 antibiotic resistance genes were identified and 18 of these were found in all the samples. Furthermore, six out of 78 pathogens harbored at least one of the 18 common antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of shotgun metagenome sequence dataset of paper currency notes, which can be useful for future applications including as bio-surveillance of exchangeable fomites for infectious agents.

PMID:
26035208
PMCID:
PMC4452720
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0128711
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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