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Magn Reson Med. 2016 Apr;75(4):1630-9. doi: 10.1002/mrm.25795. Epub 2015 May 28.

Quantitative assessment of amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear overhauser enhancement (NOE) imaging with extrapolated semisolid magnetization transfer reference (EMR) signals: II. Comparison of three EMR models and application to human brain glioma at 3 Tesla.

Author information

1
Divison of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
2
F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

To evaluate the use of three extrapolated semisolid magnetization transfer reference (EMR) methods to quantify amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) signals in human glioma.

METHODS:

Eleven patients with high-grade glioma were scanned at 3 Tesla. aEMR(2) (asymmetric magnetization-transfer or MT model to fit two-sided, wide-offset data), sEMR(2) (symmetric MT model to fit two-sided, wide-offset data), and sEMR(1) (symmetric MT model to fit one-sided, wide-offset data) were assessed. ZEMR and experimental data at 3.5 ppm and -3.5 ppm were subtracted to calculate the APT and NOE signals (APT(#) and NOE(#)), respectively.

RESULTS:

The aEMR(2) and sEMR(1) models provided quite similar APT(#) signals, while the sEMR(2) provided somewhat lower APT(#) signals. The aEMR(2) had an erroneous NOE(#) quantification. Calculated APT(#) signal intensities of glioma (∼4%), much larger than the values reported previously, were significantly higher than those of edema and normal tissue. Compared with normal tissue, gadolinium-enhancing tumor cores were consistently hyperintense on the APT(#) maps and slightly hypointense on the NOE(#) maps.

CONCLUSION:

The sEMR(1) model is the best choice for accurately quantifying APT and NOE signals. The APT-weighted hyperintensity in the tumor was dominated by the APT effect, and the MT asymmetry at 3.5 ppm is a reliable and valid metric for APT imaging of gliomas at 3T.

KEYWORDS:

APT; CEST; MT; NOE; brain glioma

PMID:
26033553
PMCID:
PMC4662920
DOI:
10.1002/mrm.25795
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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