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Nat Rev Urol. 2015 Jun;12(6):317-30. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2015.100. Epub 2015 May 26.

Developing proteomic biomarkers for bladder cancer: towards clinical application.

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Biotechnology Division, Biomedical Research Foundation Academy of Athens, 4 Soranou Ephessiou Street, 115 27 Athens, Greece.
Mosaiques Diagnostics GmbH, Rotenburger Strasse 20, 30659 Hannover, Germany.
Department of Urology and Urological Oncology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.
BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, University of Glasgow, 126 University Avenue, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK.


Clinical use of proteomic biomarkers has the potential to substantially improve the outcomes of patients with bladder cancer. An unmet clinical need evidently exists for noninvasive biomarkers, which might enable improvements in both the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with bladder cancer, as well as improved monitoring of patients for the presence of recurrence. Urine is considered the optimal noninvasive source of proteomic biomarkers in patients with bladder cancer. Currently, a number of single-protein biomarkers have been detected in urine and tissue using a variety of proteomic techniques, each having specific conceptual considerations and technical implications. Promising preclinical data are available for several of these proteins; however, the combination of single urinary proteins into multimarker panels might better encompass the molecular heterogeneity of bladder cancer within this patient population, and prove more effective in clinical use.

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