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J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015 Sep-Oct;3(5):721-31.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2015.04.012. Epub 2015 May 29.

Small-particle Inhaled Corticosteroid as First-line or Step-up Controller Therapy in Childhood Asthma.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatric Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Emma Children's Hospital AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
2
Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University London, London, UK.
3
Cincinnati Children's Hospital and Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.
4
Cochin Hospital Group, AP-HP, University of Paris Descartes (EA2511), Paris, France.
5
Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass.
6
Department of Medicine, National Jewish Health and University of Colorado Denver, Denver, Colo.
7
Washington Hospital Center and George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC.
8
University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
9
Research in Real Life, Ltd, Cambridge, UK.
10
Research in Real Life, Ltd, Cambridge, UK; Academic Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK. Electronic address: dprice@rirl.org.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Because randomized controlled trials of established pediatric asthma therapies are expensive and difficult to perform, observational studies may fill gaps in the evidence base.

OBJECTIVES:

To compare the effectiveness of representative small-particle inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) with that of standard size-particle ICS for children initiating or stepping up ICS therapy for asthma (analysis 1) and to compare the effectiveness of ICS dose step-up using small-particle ICS with adding long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) to the ICS (analysis 2).

METHODS:

These historical matched cohort analyses drew on electronic medical records of children with asthma aged 5 to 11 years. Variables measured during 2 consecutive years (1 baseline year for confounder definition and 1 outcome year) included risk-domain asthma control (no hospital attendance for asthma, acute oral corticosteroids, or lower respiratory tract infection requiring antibiotics) and rate of severe exacerbations (asthma-related emergency, hospitalization, or oral corticosteroids).

RESULTS:

In the initiation population (n = 797 in each cohort), children prescribed small-particle ICS versus standard size-particle ICS experienced greater odds of asthma control (adjusted odds ratio, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.10-2.02) and lower severe exacerbation rate (adjusted rate ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.88). Step-up outcomes (n = 206 in each cohort) were also significantly better for small-particle ICS, with asthma control adjusted odds ratio of 2.22 (95% CI, 1.23-4.03) and exacerbations adjusted rate ratio of 0.49 (95% CI, 0.27-0.89). The number needed to treat with small-particle ICS to achieve 1 additional child with asthma control was 17 (95% CI, 9-107) for the initiation population and 5 (95% CI, 3-78) for the step-up population. Outcomes were not significantly different for stepped-up small-particle ICS dose versus ICS/LABA combination (n = 185 in each cohort).

CONCLUSIONS:

Initiating or stepping up the ICS dose with small-particle ICS rather than with standard size-particle ICS is more effective and shows similar effectiveness to add-on LABA in childhood asthma.

KEYWORDS:

Asthma; Childhood; Fluticasone; Inhaled corticosteroid; Long-acting β(2)-agonist; Small-particle beclomethasone; Step-up therapy

PMID:
26032474
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaip.2015.04.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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