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Phytother Res. 2015 Jul;29(7):986-95. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5382. Epub 2015 May 31.

Anti-diabetic and Anti-hyperlipidemic Effects and Safety of Salacia reticulata and Related Species.

Author information

1
AdvoCare International, Plano, TX, 75074, USA.
2
Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manchester University College of Pharmacy, Fort Wayne, IN, 46845, USA.

Abstract

Extracts of Salacia reticulata Wight (Hypocrataceae) roots, stems, and leaves have been used in Asia for hundreds of years for the folkloric treatment of diabetes and other health problems. Constituents that have been identified as exhibiting anti-diabetic effects include salacinol, kotalanol, ponkorinol, salaprinol, and their corresponding de-0-sulfonated compounds. Mangiferin, kotalagenin 16-acetate and various proanthocyanidin oligomers have also been isolated. Studies indicate that Salacia extracts modulate multiple targets that influence carbohydrate and lipid metabolism including α-glucosidase, aldose reductase, pancreatic lipase, peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-α, glucose transporter-4 mediated glucose uptake, and angiotensin II type 1 receptor. Furthermore, Salacia extracts exhibit free radical scavenging, antioxidant and hepatoprotectant activities. In human studies, Salacia extracts have been shown to decrease plasma glucose and insulin levels, decrease HbA1c, and modulate serum lipid levels with no adverse effects being reported. Similar results have been demonstrated in rat and mouse models as well as in vitro systems. Safety of S. reticulata and other Salacia species as S. oblonga and S. chinensis in rats and mice indicate that extracts are exceedingly safe. No clinical studies have examined the effects of Salacia extracts on human weight loss, although weight loss and decreases in weight gain have been demonstrated in animal models. Because of the large number of pharmacologically active compounds, it is difficult to establish standards for extracts.

KEYWORDS:

Salacia reticulata; anti-hyperlipidemic; antidiabetic; antioxidant; hepatoprotectant

PMID:
26031882
PMCID:
PMC5033029
DOI:
10.1002/ptr.5382
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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