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World J Radiol. 2015 May 28;7(5):89-99. doi: 10.4329/wjr.v7.i5.89.

"To-and-fro" waveform in the diagnosis of arterial pseudoaneurysms.

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Mustafa Z Mahmoud, Mohammed Al-Saadi, Abdelmoneim Sulieman, Radiology and Medical Imaging Department, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia.


Medical ultrasound imaging with Doppler plays an essential role in the diagnosis of vascular disease. This study intended to review the clinical use of "to-and-fro" waveform at duplex Doppler ultrasonography (DDU) in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in the arterial vessels of upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries as well as to review our personal experiences of "to-and-fro" waveform at DDU also. After receiving institutional review board approval, an inclusive literature review was carried out in order to review the scientific foundation of "to-and-fro" waveform at DDU and its clinical use in the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysms in various arterial vessels. Articles published in the English language between 2000 and 2013 were evaluated in this review study. Pseudoaneurysms in arterial vessels of the upper and lower extremities, abdominal aorta, carotid and vertebral arteries characterized by an extraluminal pattern of blood flow, which shows variable echogenicity, interval complexity, and "to-and-fro" flow pattern on color Doppler ultrasonography. In these arterial vessels, Duplex ultrasonography can demonstrate the degree of clotting, pseudoaneurysm communication, the blood flow patterns and velocities. Spectral Doppler applied to pseudoaneurysms lumen revealed systolic and diastolic turbulent blood flow with traditional "to-and-fro" waveform in the communicating channel. Accurate diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm by spectral Doppler is based on the documentation of the "to-and-fro" waveform. The size of pseudoaneurysm determines the appropriate treatment approach as surgical or conservative.


Percutaneous thrombin injection; Pseudoaneurysm; To-and-fro waveform; Ultrasonography; Yin-Yang sign

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