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J Fluency Disord. 2015 Sep;45:73-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2015.05.001. Epub 2015 May 16.

Origin and Pawn scaling for adults who do and do not stutter: A preliminary comparison.

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Department of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, Catholic University of Daegu, Hyang-Eup, Gyungsan-si, Kyungsangbuk-do, South Korea. Electronic address:
School of Communication Science and Disorders, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.
American Institute for Stuttering, 27W 20th St., Suite 1203, New York, NY 10011, USA.



In order to determine whether adults who stutter (AWS) would show changes in locus of causality during stuttering treatment and approximate those of adults who do not stutter (AWNS) this preliminary study compared the locus of causality as indicated by Origin and Pawn scaling procedures from two groups of young adults who do and do not stutter.


A total of 20 age- and gender-matched undergraduate and graduate students who did (n = 10) and did not (n = 10) stutter participated. The AWS took part in a three week intensive stuttering treatment provided by the American Institute for Stuttering (AIS). Along with measures of treatment outcome, writing samples were analyzed for Origin and Pawn statements that indicated the participant's locus of causality.


At the outset of treatment the AWS showed significantly greater Pawn scores than the control group of AWNS and similar occurrences of Origin statements. The AWS showed a statistically significant increase in pre- to post-treatment Origin scores and a statistically significant decrease in Pawn scores. Following treatment the AWS showed the Origin and Pawn score ratios similar to those of AWNS.


A pattern of increasing Origin and decreasing Pawn scores may indicate a pattern of increasing agency during successful stuttering treatment. Moreover the post-treatment Origin and Pawn score ratios of AWS, which were not significantly different from those of AWNS, may indicate a change trend toward normalization. Further research will determine whether such change patterns are predictive of long-term maintenance.


By reading this article the reader will be able to: (a) describe advantages of content analysis measure such as the Origin and Pawn Scales; (b) discuss the purposes and procedures of the Origin and Pawn Scales; (c) describe typical change pattern of Origin and Pawn scores of adults who stutter while receiving treatment; (d) discuss how successful treatment for stuttering can result in the normalization of one's locus of causality.


Adults; Locus of causality; Origin; Pawn; Stuttering

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