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J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2015;33(2):229-54. doi: 10.1080/10590501.2015.1030530.

A current review for biological monitoring of manganese with exposure, susceptibility, and response biomarkers.

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a Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Department of Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women's University , Seoul , Republic of Korea.


People can be easily exposed to manganese (Mn), the twelfth most abundant element, through various exposure routes. However, overexposure to Mn causes manganism, a motor syndrome similar to Parkinson disease, via interference of the several neurotransmitter systems, particularly the dopaminergic system in areas. At cellular levels, Mn preferentially accumulates in mitochondria and increases the generation of reactive oxygen species, which changes expression and activity of manganoproteins. Many studies have provided invaluable insights into the causes, effects, and mechanisms of the Mn-induced neurotoxicity. To regulate Mn exposure, many countries have performed biological monitoring of Mn with three major biomarkers: exposure, susceptibility, and response biomarkers. In this study, we review current statuses of Mn exposure via various exposure routes including food, high susceptible population, effects of genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes or transporters (CYP2D6, PARK9, SLC30A10, etc.), alterations of the Mn-responsive proteins (i.e., glutamine synthetase, Mn-SOD, metallothioneins, and divalent metal trnsporter1), and epigenetic changes due to the Mn exposure. To minimize the effects of Mn exposure, further biological monitoring of Mn should be done with more sensitive and selective biomarkers.


biological monitoring; epigenetic changes; genetic polymorphism; manganese (Mn), exposure; susceptibility

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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