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J Tissue Eng. 2015 May 14;6:2041731415586318. doi: 10.1177/2041731415586318. eCollection 2015.

Elucidating the cellular actions of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal dental pulp stem cell population in orchestrating dental tissue repair.

Author information

1
Tissue Engineering and Reparative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK ; Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK.
2
Tissue Engineering and Reparative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK ; School of Dentistry, The University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
3
Tissue Engineering and Reparative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK ; Cardiff Institute of Tissue Engineering and Repair, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.

Abstract

Bioactive growth factors identified within the extracellular matrix of dentine have been proposed roles in regulating the naturally inherent regenerative dentine formation seen in teeth in response to trauma and infection, which may also be harnessed for novel clinical treatments in augmenting mineralised tissue repair. This study examined the specific biological action of demineralised dentine matrix extract on a clonal population of dental pulp stem cells in stimulating the prerequisite stages of wound healing associated with mineralised tissue repair. A clonal dental pulp stem cell population with sustained proliferative capacity and multi-potentiality towards osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages was isolated from the pulp of human third molars. Dentine was collected from human healthy teeth, powdered and treated with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to obtain a solubilised DDM protein extract. The influence of DDM on the DPSC clonal population was assessed in vitro. Exposure of cells to proteolytically degraded DDM or unsupplemented media served as controls. Compared to controls, DDM stimulated cell expansion, reduced apoptotic marker caspase 3, increased cell survival marker Akt1 and enhanced mineralised matrix deposition as determined by mineral deposition and increased expression of bone-related markers, alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin. Dental pulp stem cells successfully migrated into collagen gels supplemented with demineralised dentine matrix, with cells remaining viable and expanding in numbers over a 3-day period. Collectively, the results provide evidence that soluble proteins extracted from dentine matrix are able to exert a direct biological effect on dental pulp stem cells in promoting mineralised tissue repair mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

Dental pulp; anti-apoptotic; cell proliferation; dentine matrix; dentine repair; mesenchymal stem cells; odontogenesis; osteogenesis

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