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Arabidopsis Book. 2015 Apr 24;13:e0176. doi: 10.1199/tab.0176. eCollection 2015.

Mechanism of cytoplasmic mRNA translation.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Biosciences and Institute for Cell and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin TX 78712-0165 ; Both authors contributed equally to this work.
2
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences and Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, 92521 USA ; Both authors contributed equally to this work.

Abstract

Protein synthesis is a fundamental process in gene expression that depends upon the abundance and accessibility of the mRNA transcript as well as the activity of many protein and RNA-protein complexes. Here we focus on the intricate mechanics of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of higher plants. This chapter includes an inventory of the plant translational apparatus and a detailed review of the translational processes of initiation, elongation, and termination. The majority of mechanistic studies of cytoplasmic translation have been carried out in yeast and mammalian systems. The factors and mechanisms of translation are for the most part conserved across eukaryotes; however, some distinctions are known to exist in plants. A comprehensive understanding of the complex translational apparatus and its regulation in plants is warranted, as the modulation of protein production is critical to development, environmental plasticity and biomass yield in diverse ecosystems and agricultural settings.

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