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J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2015 Dec;10(4):561-75. doi: 10.1007/s11481-015-9618-9. Epub 2015 May 28.

Regulation of the Neurodegenerative Process Associated to Parkinson's Disease by CD4+ T-cells.

Author information

1
Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Avenida Zañartu #1482, Ñuñoa, 7780272, Santiago, Chile.
2
Laboratory of Neuroimmunology, Fundación Ciencia & Vida, Avenida Zañartu #1482, Ñuñoa, 7780272, Santiago, Chile. rpacheco@cienciavida.org.
3
Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andres Bello, 8370146, Santiago, Chile. rpacheco@cienciavida.org.

Abstract

Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in the physiopathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Microglial cells play a central role in the outcome of neuroinflammation and consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Current evidence indicates that CD4+ T-cells infiltrate the central nervous system (CNS) in PD, where they play a critical role determining the functional phenotype of microglia, thus regulating the progression of the neurodegenerative process. Here, we first analysed the pathogenic role of inflammatory phenotypes and the beneficial role of anti-inflammatory phenotypes of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells involved in the physiopathology of PD. Next, we discussed how alterations of neurotransmitter levels observed in the basal ganglia throughout the time course of PD progression could be strongly affecting the behaviour of encephalitogenic CD4+ T-cells and thereby the outcome of the neuroinflammatory process and the consequent neurodegeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Afterward, we integrated the evidence indicating the involvement of an antigen-specific immune response mediated by T-cells and B-cells against CNS-derived self-constituents in PD. Consistent with the involvement of a relevant autoimmune component in PD, we also reviewed the polymorphisms of both, class I and class II major histocompatibility complexes, associated to the risk of PD. Overall, this study gives an overview of how an autoimmune component involved in PD plays a fundamental role in the progression of the neurodegenerative process.

KEYWORDS:

Autoimmunity; CD4+ T-cells; Neuroinflammation; Neurotransmitters; Parkinson’s disease

PMID:
26018603
DOI:
10.1007/s11481-015-9618-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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