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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 9;112(23):7303-8. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1507714112. Epub 2015 May 27.

Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana.

Author information

1
Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire des Plantes and Biologie Environnementale et Systémique, Université Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique Fondamentale et Appliquée, BP53F, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France;
2
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Molecular Biosciences, and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420.
3
Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Molecular Plant Sciences, School of Molecular Biosciences, and Center for Reproductive Biology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-6420 diter@wsu.edu steffen.reinbothe@ujf-grenoble.fr.
4
Laboratoire de Génétique Moléculaire des Plantes and Biologie Environnementale et Systémique, Université Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique Fondamentale et Appliquée, BP53F, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France; diter@wsu.edu steffen.reinbothe@ujf-grenoble.fr.

Abstract

Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (responsive to desiccation 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles' heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP.

KEYWORDS:

Kunitz protease inhibitor; cysteine proteases; herbivore deterrence; plant defense; skotomorphogenesis

PMID:
26016527
PMCID:
PMC4466707
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1507714112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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