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Stem Cells. 2015 Oct;33(10):3017-27. doi: 10.1002/stem.2058. Epub 2015 Jun 28.

Muscle Satellite Cell Protein Teneurin-4 Regulates Differentiation During Muscle Regeneration.

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Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Graduate School of Health Care Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan.
Department of Molecular Therapy, National Institute of Neuroscience, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira, Tokyo, Japan.
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka, Japan.
Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan.


Satellite cells are maintained in an undifferentiated quiescent state, but during muscle regeneration they acquire an activated stage, and initiate to proliferate and differentiate as myoblasts. The transmembrane protein teneurin-4 (Ten-4) is specifically expressed in the quiescent satellite cells; however, its cellular and molecular functions remain unknown. We therefore aimed to elucidate the function of Ten-4 in muscle satellite cells. In the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of Ten-4-deficient mice, the number and the size of myofibers, as well as the population of satellite cells, were reduced with/without induction of muscle regeneration. Furthermore, we found an accelerated activation of satellite cells in the regenerated Ten-4-deficient TA muscle. The cell culture analysis using primary satellite cells showed that Ten-4 suppressed the progression of myogenic differentiation. Together, our findings revealed that Ten-4 functions as a crucial player in maintaining the quiescence of muscle satellite cells.


Muscle; Muscle stem cell; Quiescence; Regeneration; Satellite cell; Teneurin-4/Odz4

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