Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nutrients. 2015 May 22;7(5):3869-90. doi: 10.3390/nu7053869.

Fructose:glucose ratios--a study of sugar self-administration and associated neural and physiological responses in the rat.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. alevy01@uoguelph.ca.
2
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. pmarshal@uoguelph.ca.
3
Laboratory of Addictive Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. zhouya@mail.rockefeller.edu.
4
Laboratory of Addictive Diseases, Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065, USA. Mary.Jeanne.Kreek@rockefeller.edu.
5
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. katekent15@gmail.com.
6
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. daniels@uoguelph.ca.
7
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. shorea@mail.uoguelph.ca.
8
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. tianadowns@hotmail.com.
9
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. mariafer@uoguelph.ca.
10
Department of Human Health & Nutritional Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. dmutch@uoguelph.ca.
11
Department of Psychology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada. fleri@uoguelph.ca.

Abstract

This study explored whether different ratios of fructose (F) and glucose (G) in sugar can engender significant differences in self-administration and associated neurobiological and physiological responses in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In Experiment 1, animals self-administered pellets containing 55% F + 45% G or 30% F + 70% G, and Fos immunoreactivity was assessed in hypothalamic regions regulating food intake and reward. In Experiment 2, rats self-administered solutions of 55% F + 42% G (high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)), 50% F + 50% G (sucrose) or saccharin, and mRNA of the dopamine 2 (D2R) and mu-opioid (MOR) receptor genes were assessed in striatal regions involved in addictive behaviors. Finally, in Experiment 3, rats self-administered HFCS and sucrose in their home cages, and hepatic fatty acids were quantified. It was found that higher fructose ratios engendered lower self-administration, lower Fos expression in the lateral hypothalamus/arcuate nucleus, reduced D2R and increased MOR mRNA in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens core, respectively, as well as elevated omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These data indicate that a higher ratio of fructose may enhance the reinforcing effects of sugar and possibly lead to neurobiological and physiological alterations associated with addictive and metabolic disorders.

KEYWORDS:

dopamine 2 receptor; fatty acid; fructose; glucose; hepatic; hypothalamus; mu opioid receptor; nucleus accumbens; rat; self-administration

PMID:
26007337
PMCID:
PMC4446784
DOI:
10.3390/nu7053869
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center