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Int J Mol Sci. 2015 May 22;16(5):11728-49. doi: 10.3390/ijms160511728.

Soy and breast cancer: focus on angiogenesis.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, P.J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Trieda SNP 1, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia. lenka.varinska@upjs.sk.
2
Department of Pharmacology, P.J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Trieda SNP 1, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia. peter.gal@upjs.sk.
3
Department for Biomedical Research, East-Slovak Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Ondavská 8, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia. peter.gal@upjs.sk.
4
Department of Pharmacognosy and Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Commenius University, Odbojárov 10, 832 10 Bratislava, Slovakia. peter.gal@upjs.sk.
5
Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, U nemocnice 3, 128 00 Prague, Czech Republic. peter.gal@upjs.sk.
6
Department of Experimental Medicine, P.J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Trieda SNP-1, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia. gabriela.mojzisova@upjs.sk.
7
Department of Pharmacology, P.J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Trieda SNP 1, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia. ladislav.mirossay@upjs.sk.
8
Department of Pharmacology, P.J. Šafárik University, Faculty of Medicine, Trieda SNP 1, 040 11 Košice, Slovakia. jan.mojzis@upjs.sk.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies have revealed that high consumption of soy products is associated with low incidences of hormone-dependent cancers, including breast and prostate cancer. Soybeans contain large amounts of isoflavones, such as the genistein and daidzain. Previously, it has been demonstrated that genistein, one of the predominant soy isoflavones, can inhibit several steps involved in carcinogenesis. It is suggested that genistein possesses pleiotropic molecular mechanisms of action including inhibition of tyrosine kinases, DNA topoisomerase II, 5α-reductase, galectin-induced G2/M arrest, protein histidine kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinases, modulation of different signaling pathways associated with the growth of cancer cells (e.g., NF-κB, Akt, MAPK), etc. Moreover, genistein is also a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is considered as a key step in cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Genistein was found to inhibit angiogenesis through regulation of multiple pathways, such as regulation of VEGF, MMPs, EGFR expressions and NF-κB, PI3-K/Akt, ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thereby causing strong antiangiogenic effects. This review focuses on the antiangiogenic properties of soy isoflavonoids and examines their possible underlying mechanisms.

KEYWORDS:

angiogenesis; breast cancer; galectins; genistein; soy

PMID:
26006245
PMCID:
PMC4463727
DOI:
10.3390/ijms160511728
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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