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Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2015 Nov;25(8):661-73. doi: 10.1016/j.tcm.2015.02.005. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

The past, present, and future of pacemaker therapies.

Author information

1
Heart Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Heart Failure Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Netherlands Heart Institute, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address: g.j.boink@amc.nl.
2
Heart Failure Research Center, Department of Anatomy, Embryology, and Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Pharmacology, Columbia University, New York, NY; Center for Molecular Therapeutics, Columbia University, New York, NY.
4
Heart Center, Department of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Since its introduction into clinical practice, electronic pacing has saved many lives. Despite continuous improvements, electronic pacemakers have important shortcomings, which stimulated the development of biological alternatives. Biological pacemakers generate the cardiac impulse using genes or cells to treat bradycardias. Over the past decade, significant improvements have been made in biological pacemakers, but issues remain in relation to long-term outcomes and safety. Concurrently, efforts to improve electronic pacemakers have also intensified. Whether new generations of electronic pacemakers will erase lingering concerns with regard to electronic pacing or whether biologicals will ultimately supplement or supplant electronics remains to be seen.

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PMID:
26001958
DOI:
10.1016/j.tcm.2015.02.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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