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Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2015 Jul;32(7):477-85. doi: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000256.

Nonelective surgery at night and in-hospital mortality: Prospective observational data from the European Surgical Outcomes Study.

Collaborators (1937)

Bauer P, Hoeft A, Metnitz P, Moreno R, Pearse R, Pelosi P, Rhodes A, Spies C, Vallet B, Vincent JL, Hoste E, Huyghens L, Jacobs R, Van Mossevelde V, Opdenacker G, Poelaert J, Spapen H, Leleu K, Rijckaert D, De Decker K, Foubert L, De Neve N, Biston P, Piagnerelli M, Collin V, den Blauwen N, Clauwaert C, De Crop L, Hoste E, Verbeke A, Derumeaux P, Gardin C, Kindt S, Louage S, Verhamme B, Druwé P, Lahaye I, Rosseel F, Rutsaert R, Vanlinthout L, De Kock M, Forget P, Georges P, Grosu I, Kahn D, Lois F, Momeni M, Yemnga AP, Jadoul JL, Malbrain M, Bosinceanu D, Collard E, Jorens P, Reyntiens D, Smitz C, Vercauteren M, Fagnoul D, van Obbergh L, Goranović T, Mazul-Sunko B, Toplice K, Oremuš K, Bešlić G, Duzel V, Hauptman A, Peremin S, Šribar A, Župčić M, Benčević J, Brod S, Mirković I, Šarić Bauer Z, Belavić M, Blažanin B, Lončarić Katušin M, Brozović Krijan A, Mišković P, Šimić-Korać N, Topić J, Žilić A, Žunić J, Acan I, Adanić M, Ivanov N, Pavičić Šarić J, Tomulić K, Visković N, Bošnjak S, Haršanji Drenjančevic I, Kristek G, Kvolik S, Markić S, Stojanovic Rakipovic A, Tot OK, Venzera-Azenic D, Fabris LK, Bačak-Kocman I, Balenović I, Bandić D, Deutsch PA, Divjak L, Grčić Filipović I, Gužvinec Z, Krznarić Z, Lončarić Y, Magaš JV, Mitrović M, Okić M, Pavlek M, Ramov E, Rezek K, Sekulić A, Tomasevic B, Mirić M, Tomašević A, Tomić Mahečić T, Vrbanović V, Bobinac M, Božić A, Debelic D, Frkovic V, Mladić Batinica I, Baranović S, Gavranović Ž, Kikec M, Maldini B, Marić S, Agnić I, Delić N, Dropulić N, Kljaković Gašpić T, Ilić D, Ivančev B, Karanović N, Kuščević D, Marović Z, Milić M, Nevešćanin A, Petković T, Smoje M, Brozović G, Goranović T, Jelisavac M, Matolić M, Mazul-Sunko B, Oberhofer D, Pavičić AM, Šakić K, Bozovic MD, Krecek ZK, Krobot R, Andabaka T, Bratanić M, Dzepina O, Kraljev M, Šeric J, Šimurina T, Grujić R, Nacevski-Bulaja B, Barižon M, Danira V, Dražen B, Dušanka K, Bašić Halužan M, Joško Ž, Katica R, Labor M, Grgurević Marinković T, Mihovilčević D, Marija B, Srečko M, Vranković S, Kyprianou T, Kyprianou T, Neophytou K, Cerny V, Cvachovec K, Belikova B, Drab M, Hudacek K, Krikava I, Stourac P, Zadrazilova K, Bicek V, Brabcová M, Klozová R, Vajter J, Vymazal T, Toft P, Blichfeldt L, Hansen BD, Moller K, Nielsen JS, Frederiksen J, Dohn Andersen J, Kühne JP, Leivdal S, Stendell L, Simonsen M, Zoltowski MK, Ali ZS, Freundlich M, Pilypaite J, Clausen NG, Toft P, Thorup L, Hansen F, Bestle M, Hansen CS, Afshari A, Bastholm Bille A, Lefort M, Secher EL, Liboriussen L, Herodes V, Marvet K, Pool K, Kallas P, Mägi TK, Sütt J, Vijar K, Visk E, Vinnal M, Ellermaa J, Liibusk L, Tikkerberi A, Falk I, Mällo E, Talving J, Pettila V, Hovilehto S, Kirsi A, Mustola S, Tiainen P, Toivonen J, Dabnell S, Kaminski T, Kaukonen M, Silvasti P, Vainio K, Lund V, Sjövall S, Saarinen K, Viitanen M, Ahonen T, Alaspää A, Zittling R, Aarne S, Annette M, Bodo W, Laru-Sompa R, Elomaa E, Lavonen L, Nevantaus J, Geier K, Kavasmaa T, Koorits U, Kubjas M, Lauritsalo S, Ottelin L, Palve M, Pynnönen J, Raabis I, Saarelainen M, Heikkilä T, Kontula T, Lehtimäki M, Liimatainen J, Moilanen-Oikarinen M, Pakarinen M, Palanne R, Seppänen H, Pulkkinen A, Vääräniemi H, Kainuun Keskussairaala K, Paananen S, Koskenkari J, Sälkiö S, Vakkala M, Koskue T, Loisa P, Ruut L, Hautamäki R, Koivisto SP, Futier E, Lefrant JY, Leon A, Bonnet F, Marret E, Spielvogel C, Papageorgiou C, Szymkiewicz O, Tounou-Akue F, Aubrun F, Bonnet A, Gazon M, Guiraud M, Laurent V, Béclère A, Tachon G, Demars N, Dumenil AS, Mercier FJ, Landais A, Mentec H, Bazin M, Futier E, Gonnu S, Petit A, Albaladejo P, Almeras L, Bataillard A, Rossi-Blancher M, Lefrant JY, Barthel F, Hallel D, Sbai H, Khalifeh P, Lidzborski L, Jully M, Platon E, Pottecher J, Baumgarten R, Schultz C, ElMiloudi F, Lefebvre J, Waton K, Sprunck A, Steib A, Thibaud A, Thuet V, Kieffer V, Dubois-Vallaud D, Jacob L, Becanne X, Cherfaoui S, Gauzit R, Godier A, Lakhdari M, Samma CM, Bigeon JY, Burtin P, Halchini C, Lacroix M, Pinna F, Barbes A, Just B, Mateu P, Benayoun L, Berger P, Granier N, Perrigault PF, Libert N, De Rudnicki S, Merat S, Bourdet B, Ferré F, Minville V, Piriou V, Rague P, Wallet F, Lebuffe G, Desbordes J, Robin E, Ichai C, Orban JC, Marx G, Sander M, Gottschalk A, Piontek A, Unterberg M, Hilpert J, Kees M, Triltsch A, Wiegand-Löhnert C, Glöckner C, Hohn A, Rose E, Schröder S, Wiese O, Awlakpui E, Hoeft A, Scheidemann M, Wittmann M, Ramminger A, de Abreu MG, Heller AR, Marx C, Neidel J, Goldmann A, von Heymann C, Laetsch B, Maahs E, Scholz L, Frenzel D, Massarat K, Lenhart FP, Reichle F, Rudlof K, Borchers F, Buettner C, Schmutzler M, Burgard G, Lucht A, Wagner J, Pilge S, Schneider G, Untergehrer G, Bis B, Krassler J, Dittmann J, Haberkorn J, Eberitsch J, Eberitsch K, Nippraschk T, Wepler U, Engelen WC, Nau C, Scholler A, Schüttler J, Wintzheimer S, Bloos F, Braune A, Fergen D, Ludewig K, Paxian M, Reinhart K, Graf N, Schwarzkopf K, Berger K, Habicher M, Kasperiunaite R, Savelsberg S, Krep H, Reindl M, Weber M, Bauer W, Bingold F, Christ S, Friederich P, Kaviani R, Auer P, Bonnländer G, Drescher J, Braun R, Eichenauer T, Kerner J, Bierbaum K, Brünner H, Grond S, Perez-Platz U, Andresen B, Linstedt U, Stegmann N, Erkens U, Kopcke J, Meyer A, Brestrich H, Ernst S, Merkel S, Krieger L, Luers F, Weyland A, Noeldge-Schomburg G, Menckie T, Wasmund C, Bredtmann RD, Erler I, Haumann C, Möllemann A, Oehmichen U, Sergejewa O, Lehning B, Czeslick E, Geyer M, Malcharek M, Sablotzki A, Stier M, Feld F, Marx G, Rossaint R, Simon V, Armaganidis A, Koulenti D, Kotanidou A, Nanas S, Papastylianou A, Psevdi A, Stathopoulos A, Voulas A, Kanna E, Koutsikou A, Moustaka A, Chovas A, Komnos A, Zafiridis T, Franses J, Lavrentieva A, Koraki E, Katsenos C, Kasianidou MF, Nasopoulou P, Spyropoulou E, Gousia C, Katsanoulas C, Lathyris D, Kyriazopoulos G, Sfyras D, Tsirogianni A, Armaganidis A, Kostopanagiotou G, Koulenti D, Lignos M, Matsota P, Christopoulos C, Mouratidou A, Vrettou E, Boufidis S, Moka E, Arnaoutoglou E, Koulouras V, Nakos G, Papathanakos G, Anthopoulos G, Choutas G, Karapanos D, Tzani V, Gkiokas G, Nastos K, Nikolakopoulos F, Dragoumanis C, Nikitidis N, Pneumatikos I, Theodorou V, Zacharouli D, Kandi S, Tasopoulos K, Arvaniti K, Matamis D, Mplougoura E, Petropoulou P, Soumpasis I, Amaniti E, Giannakou-Peftoulidou M, Gkeka E, Soultati I, Kokinou M, Papatheodorou L, Stafylaraki M, Giasnetsova T, Gritsi-Gerogianni N, Kydona C, Kiskira O, Koulentis I, Apsokardos A, Dimitropoulos K, Soldatou O, Nathanail C, Papazotos A, Kolotoura A, Sartzi M, Papanikolaou S, Polakis P, Karatzas S, Kyparissi A, Papavasilopoulou T, Koukoubani T, Mastora E, Spyropoulou K, Papaioannou A, Maragkou E, Spring A, Ioakeimidou SE, Noulas N, Molnár Z, Molnár Z, Csüllög E, Elekes E, Katona Z, Kremer I, Miko A, Csomos A, Galambos Z, Szucs A, Nyikos G, Szekeres G, Szabo E, Kranitz K, Simon M, Szigeti J, Gaál E, Havas A, Ille A, Bráz K, Nagy G, Sigurdsson G, Sigurbjörnsson FT, Sigurdsson GH, Sigurdardottir EE, Gunnarsson B, Westbrook A, Broderick A, Hafeez P, Hanumanthaiah D, Brohan J, O'Chroinin D, Bailey K, Ramamoorthy KG, Doyle Y, Freir N, O'Rourke J, Jonson P, Saeed S, Hayes I, Loughrey J, Frohlich S, McCauley N, Ryan D, Fitzpatrick G, Kevin L, Thomas J, Warde B, Woolhead A, Duggan M, Egan C, Crowley S, Lebese S, Bergin A, Westbrook A, Page R, Collins D, McKenny M, Della Rocca G, Grasso S, Bresciani A, Carmino L, Ghelfi S, Lorenzelli L, Novelli MT, Pescarmona C, Roasio A, Gatta A, Nastasi M, Sanseverino M, Tinti C, Bianchin A, Tormena MP, Franco A, Marini F, Rapido F, Bellotti F, Boninsegna D, Castellani G, Sances D, Spano G, Tredici S, Vezzoli D, Fucecchio I, Bacci A, Coppini R, Dell'Unto S, Mori E, Stanzani MR, Tosi M, Collareta M, Forfori F, Franchi M, Mancino G, Battistella M, Baricocchi E, Bona F, Debernardi F, Giacoletto G, Iacobellis A, Massucco P, Moselli N, Muratore A, Palomba G, Sardo E, De Simone M, Suita L, Zocca E, Bucci B, Corte FD, Piciucco T, Viarengo V, Pugliese F, Ruberto F, Bettelli G, Cantarini E, Giampieri M, Tanfani A, Recchia E, Milano S, Bignami E, Bruno G, Costagliola R, Gandolfi A, Greco M, Lembo R, Monti G, Nicelli E, Pasculli N, Turi S, Baroselli A, Brazzoni M, Buttazzoni M, Buttera S, Centonze C, Serena G, Spagnesi L, Toretti I, Vilardi A, Zearo E, Arpino I, Baraldi S, Guarnerio C, Molene V, Monea MC, Vaccarisi E, Vicari L, Albante A, Aversano M, Loiacono C, Marandola M, Fusari M, Petrucci N, Galla A, Mascia A, Primieri P, Di Noto A, Gratarola A, Molin A, Pelosi P, Spagnolo L, Spena C, Bussolengo O, Calligaro P, Marchiotto S, Merlini A, Pedrazzoli E, Perina G, Visentin R, Fumagalli R, Garbagnati A, Manetti B, Snaier C, Somaini M, Farnia A, Nani R, Pierantonio N, De Michele M, Grasso S, Gazzanelli S, Marandola M, Bergamini E, Tassinati T, Capuzzo M, Cirillo V, Tufano R, Oggioni R, Parrini V, Brunori E, Capone M, Carbone L, Corradetti F, Elisei D, Fiorentino S, Francesconi M, Gattari D, Gorgoglione M, Iacobone E, Minnucci F, Montironi C, Riccioni G, Tappata G, Zompanti V, Verdenelli P, Cerutti E, Ranieri VM, Golubovska I, Grigorjevs S, Rikmane M, Rozkalne D, Stepanovs J, Suba O, Golubovska I, Kazune S, Miscuk A, Nemme J, Oss P, Sipylaite J, Macas A, Ragaisis V, Kontrimaviciute E, Tomkute G, Boerma E, Kramer IF, Poeze M, Ziekenhuis A, Maria J, Pelzer G, Winsser LJ, Nijsten M, Schoorl M, Spanjersberg R, Buhre WF, Dieleman S, van Klei WA, van Zaane B, Koopman-van Gemert AW, Bouw M, Pickkers P, van der A M, Capelle Z, Schreiner F, van den Berg R, De Wit E, Keijzer C, Hollmann MW, Preckel B, van Acker GJ, Dennesen PJ, Ziekenhuis AS, Kuijpers-Visser AG, Inan T, Ponssen HH, Boerma E, Brouwer T, Koopmans M, van Bommel J, van Duijn D, van der Hoven B, Ormskerk P, Beck O, Schiere S, Reidinga C, Venema A, Olthof K, Flaatten H, Jammer I, Flaatten H, Jammer I, Dokka V, Monsen SA, Ytrebo LM, Noursadeghi M, Shahzad A, Boksasp D, Roiss C, Strietzel HF, Berntsen AG, Haugland H, Vingsnes SO, Axelsson P, Risom Olsen TC, Katre S, Aakeroey K, Mikstacki A, Tamowicz B, Bożiłow D, Goch R, Grabowski P, Kupisiak J, Małłek M, Szyca R, Jankowski G, Kościelniak W, Pietraszek P, Szarowar B, Matos R, França C, Lacerda AP, Ormonde L, Rosa R, Pereira I, Vitor P, Valente P, Lopes Marques Carvalho MR, Faria M, Almeida E, Mealha R, Vicente R, Monte R, Rua F, Barros N, Esteves F, Gouveia Pinheiro CM, Oliveira VM, Oliveira MF, Martins I, Saraiva JP, Assunção JP, Bártolo A, Carvalho A, Correia C, Martins S, Milheiro R, Diaz A, Gonçalves MI, Ribeiro R, Estilita J, Glória C, de Almeida J, Barros F, Ramos A, Camara M, Maul ER, Nobrega J, Langner A, Maia DF, Afonso O, Faria F, Cabral C, Botelho MM, Ferreira P, Mourão L, Oliveira AV, Resende M, Aleman M, Fonseca J, Isidoro M, de Meneses H, Pêgas A, Pereira J, Pereira L, Ramos B, Matos F, Matos R, Martins A, Ramos C, de Sousa M, Bento L, Botas C, Lopes V, Mendes R, Grigoras I, Blaj M, Damian M, Lupusoru A, Ristescu I, Codreanu M, Diaconescu C, Nistor A, Stanescu Stelian D, Streanga L, Berneanu M, Bordeianu C, Florenta C, Iacob A, Lupu MN, Mocanu I, Moraru C, Meran C, Nicolae B, Sandu M, Turcanu R, Grigore M, Hotaranu C, Popescu N, Baban O, Baciu M, Ciobanu A, Denciu CI, Gurau V, Maftei I, Ungureanu L, Bogdan P, Corneci D, Dinu M, Madalina D, Silvius N, Tomescu D, Gabriela D, Dinescu SA, Calin M, Ionescu D, Margarit S, Vasian H, Albu C, Balasa C, Cadrigati A, Dragulescu D, Gavra L, Hentia C, Macarie C, Manescu M, Nediglea I, Ocica D, Ovidiu B, Papurica M, Plavat C, Popa C, Ramneantu M, Sandici Z, Sarandan M, Belciu I, Tincu E, Ursu I, Aignatoaie M, Huzuneanu M, Cocu S, Hagau N, Ciubotaru R, Copotoiu R, Ioana G, Kovacs J, Leonard A, Szederjesi I, Genoveva V, Mosnegutu S, Surbatovic M, Djordjevic D, Djordjevic B, Grujic K, Jovanovic D, Krstic I, Zeba S, Jevdjic J, Miletic M, Zunic F, Bulasevic A, Brko R, Gazibegovic N, Kendrisic M, Vojinovic R, Firment J, Capková J, Firment J, Grochova M, Trenkler S, Griger M, Bakosova E, Kvasnica M, Saniova B, Sulaj M, Zacharovska A, Simkova A, Číková A, Gebhardtova A, Hanuljaková S, Koutun J, Martonová A, Žilinčárová V, Galkova K, Krbila S, Sobona V, Ocenasova M, Novak-Jankovic V, Novak-Jankovic V, Grynyuk A, Damjanovska M, Kostadinov I, Knezevic M, Malivojevic M, Borovsak Z, Kamenik M, Mekiš D, Osojnik I, Kosec L, Kapš SO, Aleksic D, Gerjevič B, Kalan K, Ursic T, Aldecoa C, Montejo González JC, Artigas A, Garcia A, Lisi A, Perez I, Perez G, Poch N, Vaquer S, Balciscueta G, Barrasa H, Cabanes S, Maynar J, Poveda Y, Rodero AQ, Garcia-Bunger B, Elvira MA, Lajara AM, Palencia M, Ramos R, Fernandez AS, Tirapu León JP, López JI, Yoldi Murillo FJ, Ramirez ET, Rico PU, Patricia M, Vizcaíno M, Bernat Álvarez MJ, Real KP, Aracil N, Menendez Bodega B, Fernández García R, Álvarez García M, Gordon Q, Gutiérrez Jodrá A, De Santos López A, Ros JJ, Soto RA, Sepúlveda I, Díez EP, Fernández Fernández L, Gulina CS, Pérez Arviza L, Mouriz Fernandez L, Gómez AR, Alonso Martínez C, Mouriz Rodríguez AB, Lopez Soto C, Aldecoa C, Garcia C, Lorenzo M, Pinilla E, Rico J, Ruperez I, Alonso E, Leira F, Maseda DP, Royo C, Villagran J, Murillo Candi G, Esteva GE, Folgado RM, Fornaguera NJ, Calonge Montse P, Prat AS, Sintes D, Arteta DA, García Delgado H, López-Cuervo JF, López MC, Ramírez A, Saldaña FJ, Aliste P, Anchuelo AH, García Campos A, Catalán M, García Gómez M, Gonzalez Gonzalaez O, López López E, Arlanzón de Quevedo S, Gonzalez Serrano M, Perez-Cerdá Silvestre F, Martinez Torrente F, Arocas B, Soro M, Maroto F, Robledo Algarra R, Aleixandre IS, Rodriguez Argente G, Broseta Lleó A, Rubio AV, Vicente Sánchez JL, Enríquez Valcárcel I, Balust C, Balust J, Borrat X, Carretero MJ, Gracia I, Matute P, Mercadal J, Pujol R, Tena B, Ubre M, Albalad DD, Muñoz Alcaide C, Caballero J, Montferrer Estruch N, Ferrer MB, Lacasta Fornells A, Terrer Galera E, Garcia Martinez I, Manrique Muñoz S, Pelavski A, Perez PT, Gonzalez Posada MA, Chocron de Prat I, Rello J, Garcia Serrano L, Naya Sieiro JM, Silva L, Colomina Sole MJ, Biarnes Suñé A, Rochera Villach I, Gómez Herreras JI, Poves R, Martinez Rafael B, Martinez Almeida I, Fernandez Collates A, Bartolomé MJ, Cimadevilla B, González González AM, Rabanal Llevot JM, de Terán Mira JC, González Molina B, Pardo S, Sánchez CL, Williams M, Muñoz Corsini L, Rodríguez Fraile JR, de la Lastra M, Sacramento MK, López Saña FJ, Trenado Ålvarez J, Cantón Bulnes ML, Carrasco VG, Cubillos DN, Seisdedos ÁA, Torres BF, Ampuero MS, Llano MC, Munoz M, Orts M, Planas A, Ramasco F, Roman C, Durán MV, del Río Fernandez S, Sanduende Otero Y, Lopez Pineiro S, Barreiro Pardal C, Fernández Alcantud J, Antolinos MA, Barrios F, Casanova AC, Castro MR, Crespo BI, Felipe UL, Fuster ML, García MS, Garrote BH, Gonzalez RM, Granero MJ, Lloreda de la Guia C, López RC, de Frutos López S, Martinez JJ, Mostaza AG, Moreno AJ, Osado IR, Pastor AB, Peña R, Pérez MR, Piña MA, Romero CA, Rodríguez ER, Sáez VP, Safatle F, Salvan JH, Sampedro MG, de la Torre PA, Toro JP, Unzúe CL, Vargas MJ, Bernal DG, Echevarria M, Iglesias AU, Loza A, Rodriguez Morillo A, Serrano PD, Barrientos Sevilla FC, Cacho E, Calderón R, Dufur M, Marginet C, Monedero P, Yepes MJ, Alvarez LR, Carballal FF, Castiñeiras AP, García PD, López LR, Maceiras PR, Puente MS, Rilo MT, Alonso ET, Fernández SR, García RO, García AP, Puentes RB, Aguado DN, Carballo CL, Fernandez RF, Presedo AT, de Rabago RB, Velasco AR, Capel YJ, Cortés AF, García EM, Gimeno LM, Klamburg J, Omedas RC, Núñez MG, Maristany CL, Ruiz EM, Artigas X, Castrillón S, Espinosa N, Gomez-Caro AM, Illa S, Martín-Huerta B, Moreno M, Fernández CI, García VF, Hernández PP, Checa AH, Diaz DS, Noguera ML, Varela IP, Gallego MA, García OM, Irujo JJ, Perrino CG, Picazo JR, Timoneda FL, Arroyo MM, Blanco IA, Borja MM, Burcio SM, Castro NM, Cerdeiriña AP, Cristina MV, Dorado Díaz T, Esteruelas JA, Ingelmo II, Insuga PD, Llamas EC, Lopez JJ, Martín MB, Martín EE, Mesa EU, Monterde ML, Montoiro PA, Móstoles ML, Olarte EV, Pérez AM, Perez FD, Romero AS, Rous DP, Ruiz NM, Ruiz JA, Saiz AR, Toha AC, Utrera FA, Alberdi F, Elósegui I, García J, Garde PM, Mintegui EI, Sáez IG, Salas E, Camil S, Diaz-Boladeras RM, Mora-Guevara E, Zamora JF, Bonet A, Salo L, Salinas U, Zaballos JM, Alvarez AA, Garrido CJ, Roa JR, Vidal FG, Garcia-Egea J, Elson MZ, Asensio MA, Simeón RG, Alameda LE, Angulo GO, Aranzubia M, Arcas JJ, Arevalo J, Belvert BQ, Calvo CP, Cremades M, Crespo P, Cuarental A, Fernández PT, Herrera E, Llorente MA, Rabes CM, de Maeyer AG, Marquez MP, Mendoza DL, Muñoz JM, Martínez NA, Ferrandiz ST, Sanchez-Morcillo S, Sánchez ML, Parra AM, Vidal SG, Allué RM, Etayo BZ, Rodriguez RB, Villen LM, Jimenez CM, de Zayas RS, Moreno CD, Pacheco FS, Pascual JL, Parla IC, Gude FT, Riestra EM, Delgado FC, de Vilanova A, Barrios J, García-Sanz M, García V, Sanmiguel G, Álvaro JL, Barrachima BB, Bermejo FJ, Garcia AG, Ramírez CN, Ramos JG, Samaniego LA, Belenguer-Muncharaz A, Mateu-Campos ML, Domínguez D, Espinosa E, León T, Betancor NO, Cortes 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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence suggests that sleep deprivation associated with night-time working may adversely affect performance resulting in a reduction in the safety of surgery and anaesthesia.

OBJECTIVE:

Our primary objective was to evaluate an association between nonelective night-time surgery and in-hospital mortality. We hypothesised that urgent surgery performed during the night was associated with higher in-hospital mortality and also an increase in the duration of hospital stay and the number of admissions to critical care.

DESIGN:

A prospective cohort study. This is a secondary analysis of a large database related to perioperative care and outcome (European Surgical Outcome Study).

SETTING:

Four hundred and ninety-eight hospitals in 28 European countries.

PATIENTS:

Men and women older than 16 years who underwent nonelective, noncardiac surgery were included according to time of the procedure.

INTERVENTION:

None.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality; the secondary outcome was the duration of hospital stay and critical care admission.

RESULTS:

Eleven thousand two hundred and ninety patients undergoing urgent surgery were included in the analysis with 636 in-hospital deaths (5.6%). Crude mortality odds ratios (ORs) increased sequentially from daytime [426 deaths (5.3%)] to evening [150 deaths (6.0%), OR 1.14; 95% confidence interval 0.94 to 1.38] to night-time [60 deaths (8.3%), OR 1.62; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 2.14]. Following adjustment for confounding factors, surgery during the evening (OR 1.09; 95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.31) and night (OR 1.20; 95% confidence interval 0.9 to 1.6) was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative death. Admittance rate to an ICU increased sequentially from daytime [891 (11.1%)], to evening [347 (13.8%)] to night time [149 (20.6%)].

CONCLUSION:

In patients undergoing nonelective urgent noncardiac surgery, in-hospital mortality was associated with well known risk factors related to patients and surgery, but we did not identify any relationship with the time of day at which the procedure was performed.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01203605.

PMID:
26001104
DOI:
10.1097/EJA.0000000000000256
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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