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Int J Rheumatol. 2015;2015:468675. doi: 10.1155/2015/468675. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Intravenous iron administration and hypophosphatemia in clinical practice.

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1
Department of General Internal Medicine, Centres Hospitaliers Jolimont, 1400 Nivelles, Belgium.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Parenteral iron formulations are frequently used to correct iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and iron deficiency (ID). Intravenous formulation efficacy on ferritin and hemoglobin level improvement is greater than that of oral formulations while they are associated with lower gastrointestinal side effects. Ferric carboxymaltose- (FCM-) related hypophosphatemia is frequent and appears without clinical significance. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, duration, and potential consequences of hypophosphatemia after iron injection.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

The medical records of all patients who underwent parenteral iron injection between 2012 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Pre- and postinjection hemoglobin, ferritin, plasma phosphate, creatinine, and vitamin D levels were assessed. Patients who developed moderate (range: 0.32-0.80 mmol/L) or severe (<0.32 mmol/L) hypophosphatemia were questioned for symptoms.

RESULTS:

During the study period, 234 patients received iron preparations but 104 were excluded because of missing data. Among the 130 patients included, 52 received iron sucrose (FS) and 78 FCM formulations. Among FS-treated patients, 22% developed hypophosphatemia versus 51% of FCM-treated patients, including 13% who developed profound hypophosphatemia. Hypophosphatemia severity correlated with the dose of FCM (p = 0.04) but not with the initial ferritin, hemoglobin, or vitamin D level. Mean hypophosphatemia duration was 6 months. No immediate clinical consequence was found except for persistent fatigue despite anemia correction in some patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

Hypophosphatemia is frequent after parenteral FCM injection and may have clinical consequences, including persistent fatigue. Further studies of chronic hypophosphatemia long-term consequences, especially bone assessments, are needed.

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