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Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):1261605. doi: 10.1126/science.1261605.

Ocean plankton. Eukaryotic plankton diversity in the sunlit ocean.

Author information

1
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. vargas@sb-roscoff.fr pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr karsenti@embl.de.
2
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
3
Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany. CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
4
Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Science (ICM)-Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona E08003, Spain.
5
Laboratory of Soil Biology, University of Neuchâtel, Rue Emile-Argand 11, 2000 Neuchâtel, Switzerland.
6
CNRS, FR2424, Roscoff Culture Collection, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, FR 2424, Roscoff Culture Collection, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
7
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
8
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France.
9
CNRS FR3631, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, F-75005, Paris, France. Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, Institut de Biologie Paris-Seine, F-75005, Paris, France. Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
10
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
11
Department of Ecology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger Street, 67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.
12
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic.
13
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche-sur-Mer (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 06, UMR 7093, LOV, Observatoire Océanologique, F-06230, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France.
14
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France. CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. Université d'Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France.
15
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic. Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, 180 Dundas Street West, Suite 1400, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8, Canada.
16
Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
17
MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany. CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC) Paris 06, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
18
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.
19
Ifremer, Centre de Brest, DYNECO/Pelagos CS 10070, 29280 Plouzané, France.
20
Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France.
21
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Directors' Research, EMBL, Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
22
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Max-Delbrück-Centre for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany.
23
CNRS UMR 7232, Biologie Intégrative des Organismes Marins (BIOM), Avenue du Fontaulé, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France. Sorbonne Universités Paris 06, Observatoire Océanologique de Banyuls (OOB) UPMC, Avenue du Fontaulé, 66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France.
24
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS IGS UMR 7256, 13288 Marseille, France.
25
Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto, 611-0011, Japan.
26
PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
27
Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, East Boothbay, ME 04544, USA. National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA 22230, USA.
28
Department of Geosciences, Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD), Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France. Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO)-Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (IUEM), Place Copernic, 29820 Plouzané, France.
29
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
30
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Institut de Génomique, GENOSCOPE, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91000 Evry, France. CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. Université d'Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, Evry, France. vargas@sb-roscoff.fr pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr karsenti@embl.de.
31
Directors' Research, EMBL, Meyerhofstraße 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Ecole Normale Supérieure, Institut de Biologie de l'ENS (IBENS), and Inserm U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, F-75005 France. vargas@sb-roscoff.fr pwincker@genoscope.cns.fr karsenti@embl.de.

Abstract

Marine plankton support global biological and geochemical processes. Surveys of their biodiversity have hitherto been geographically restricted and have not accounted for the full range of plankton size. We assessed eukaryotic diversity from 334 size-fractionated photic-zone plankton communities collected across tropical and temperate oceans during the circumglobal Tara Oceans expedition. We analyzed 18S ribosomal DNA sequences across the intermediate plankton-size spectrum from the smallest unicellular eukaryotes (protists, >0.8 micrometers) to small animals of a few millimeters. Eukaryotic ribosomal diversity saturated at ~150,000 operational taxonomic units, about one-third of which could not be assigned to known eukaryotic groups. Diversity emerged at all taxonomic levels, both within the groups comprising the ~11,200 cataloged morphospecies of eukaryotic plankton and among twice as many other deep-branching lineages of unappreciated importance in plankton ecology studies. Most eukaryotic plankton biodiversity belonged to heterotrophic protistan groups, particularly those known to be parasites or symbiotic hosts.

PMID:
25999516
DOI:
10.1126/science.1261605
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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