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Science. 2015 May 22;348(6237):1261498. doi: 10.1126/science.1261498.

Ocean plankton. Patterns and ecological drivers of ocean viral communities.

Author information

1
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
2
Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
3
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Environmental and Evolutionary Genomics Section, Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), CNRS, UMR8197, INSERM U1024, 75230 Paris, France.
4
Department of Marine Biology and Oceanography, Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM)-CSIC, Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona, E08003, Spain.
5
Genoscope, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)-Institut de Génomique, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057 Evry, France.
6
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rega Institute, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Center for the Biology of Disease, VIB KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.
7
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris 06, and UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France.
8
CNRS, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d'océanographie de Villefranche (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer, France. Sorbonne Universités, Uiversité Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris 06, UMR 7093, Laboratoire d'océanographie de Villefranche (LOV), Observatoire Océanologique, 06230 Villefranche-sur-mer, France.
9
Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA.
10
Aix Marseille Université, CNRS IGS UMR 7256, 13288 Marseille, France.
11
Stazione Zoologica Anton Dohrn, Villa Comunale, 80121 Naples, Italy.
12
Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0001, Japan.
13
PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany. MARUM, Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
14
Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO-IUEM), Place Copernic, 29820 Plouzané, France.
15
CNRS, UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Sorbonne Universités, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Université Paris 06, and UMR 7144, Station Biologique de Roscoff, Place Georges Teissier, 29680 Roscoff, France. Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), and INSERM U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, 75005, France.
16
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Directors' Research, European Molecular Biology Laboratory Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
17
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. Max-Delbrück-Centre for Molecular Medicine, 13092 Berlin, Germany.
18
Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), and INSERM U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, 75005, France.
19
Structural and Computational Biology, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany.
20
Genoscope, Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)-Institut de Génomique, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, 91057 Evry, France. CNRS, UMR 8030, CP5706, 91057 Evry, France. Université d'Evry, UMR 8030, CP5706, 91057 Evry, France.
21
Institut de Biologie de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure (IBENS), and INSERM U1024, and CNRS UMR 8197, Paris, 75005, France. Directors' Research, European Molecular Biology Laboratory Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. mbsulli@gmail.com karsenti@embl.de.
22
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. Soil, Water, and Environmental Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. mbsulli@gmail.com karsenti@embl.de.

Abstract

Viruses influence ecosystems by modulating microbial population size, diversity, metabolic outputs, and gene flow. Here, we use quantitative double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viral-fraction metagenomes (viromes) and whole viral community morphological data sets from 43 Tara Oceans expedition samples to assess viral community patterns and structure in the upper ocean. Protein cluster cataloging defined pelagic upper-ocean viral community pan and core gene sets and suggested that this sequence space is well-sampled. Analyses of viral protein clusters, populations, and morphology revealed biogeographic patterns whereby viral communities were passively transported on oceanic currents and locally structured by environmental conditions that affect host community structure. Together, these investigations establish a global ocean dsDNA viromic data set with analyses supporting the seed-bank hypothesis to explain how oceanic viral communities maintain high local diversity.

PMID:
25999515
DOI:
10.1126/science.1261498
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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