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New Phytol. 2015 Sep;207(4):996-1004. doi: 10.1111/nph.13493. Epub 2015 May 21.

Systemic cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation is activated upon wounding and herbivory in Arabidopsis.

Author information

1
Plant Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Agricultural and Nutritional Sciences (IAEW), Faculty of Natural Sciences III, Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, 06099, Halle (Saale), Germany.
2
Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, Hans-Knöll-Straße 8, 07745, Jena, Germany.
3
National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067, India.
4
Interdisciplinary Center of Crop Research (IZN), Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg, 06099, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Abstract

Calcium ion (Ca(2+) ) signalling triggered by insect herbivory is an intricate network with multiple components, involving positive and negative regulators. Real-time, noninvasive imaging of entire Arabidopsis thaliana rosettes was employed to monitor cytosolic free calcium ([Ca(2+) ]cyt ) elevations in local and systemic leaves in response to wounding and Spodoptera littoralis feeding. Luminescence emitted by the cytosol-localized Ca(2+) reporter aequorin was imaged using a high-resolution photon-counting camera system. Spodoptera littoralis feeding on Arabidopsis induced both local and systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt elevations. Systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt signals were found predominantly in adjacent leaves with direct vascular connections to the treated leaf and appeared with a delay of 1 to 2 min. Simulated herbivory by wounding always induced a local [Ca(2+) ]cyt response, but a systemic one only when the midrib was wounded. This systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt response was suppressed by the presence of insect-derived oral secretions as well as in a mutant of the vacuolar cation channel, Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1). Our results provide evidence that in Arabidopsis insect herbivory induces both local and systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt signals that distribute within the vascular system. The systemic [Ca(2+) ]cyt signal could play an important signalling role in systemic plant defence.

KEYWORDS:

Arabidopsis thaliana; Two Pore Channel 1 (TPC1); aequorin; calcium; herbivory; plant defence; systemic signalling; wounding

PMID:
25996806
DOI:
10.1111/nph.13493
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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