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J Hum Genet. 2015 Sep;60(9):493-9.

Genome-wide signatures of male-mediated migration shaping the Indian gene pool.

Abstract

Multiple questions relating to contributions of cultural and demographical factors in the process of human geographical dispersal remain largely unanswered. India, a land of early human settlement and the resulting diversity is a good place to look for some of the answers. In this study, we explored the genetic structure of India using a diverse panel of 78 males genotyped using the GenoChip. Their genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) diversity was examined in the context of various covariates that influence Indian gene pool. Admixture analysis of genome-wide SNP data showed high proportion of the Southwest Asian component in all of the Indian samples. Hierarchical clustering based on admixture proportions revealed seven distinct clusters correlating to geographical and linguistic affiliations. Convex hull overlay of Y-chromosomal haplogroups on the genome-wide SNP principal component analysis brought out distinct non-overlapping polygons of F*-M89, H*-M69, L1-M27, O2a-M95 and O3a3c1-M117, suggesting a male-mediated migration and expansion of the Indian gene pool. Lack of similar correlation with mitochondrial DNA clades indicated a shared genetic ancestry of females. We suggest that ancient male-mediated migratory events and settlement in various regional niches led to the present day scenario and peopling of India.

PMID:
25994871
DOI:
10.1038/jhg.2015.51
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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