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Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2015 May 19;135(9):856-60. doi: 10.4045/tidsskr.14.0751. eCollection 2015 May 19.

Impact of the environment on multiple sclerosis.

[Article in English, Norwegian]

Author information

1
Nevrologisk avdeling Sykehuset Innlandet Lillehammer.
2
Avdeling for immunologi og transfusjonsmedisin Oslo universitetssykehus, Rikshospitalet.
3
Nevrologisk avdeling Haukeland universitetssykehus og KG Jebsen senter for MS-forskning Klinisk institutt 1 Universitetet i Bergen.
4
Nevroklinikken Akershus universitetssykehus og Institutt for klinisk medisin Universitetet i Oslo.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors play a significant role in the development of multiple sclerosis. This article presents current knowledge on the impact of the environment on disease risk and disease course.

METHOD:

We have conducted searches in PubMed for «multiple sclerosis» combined with «environment» as well as relevant environmental factors.

RESULTS:

It is highly likely that an interaction between genetic and environmental factors determines who will develop multiple sclerosis. Epstein-Barr virus infection, smoking, and low vitamin D levels are the environmental factors that have shown the strongest and most consistent association with development of the disease. Low vitamin D levels are also associated with high disease activity. Other risk factors include obesity and high salt intake.

INTERPRETATION:

Although epidemiological studies have identified a number of environmental factors with potential aetiological relevance, and the importance of these is supported by experimental studies, there is still insufficient evidence to establish a causal role for these factors in multiple sclerosis.

PMID:
25991624
DOI:
10.4045/tidsskr.14.0751
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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