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Cell Immunol. 2015 Jul;296(1):31-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.04.008. Epub 2015 May 6.

Human gamma delta T cells: Evolution and ligand recognition.

Author information

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Committee on Cancer Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. Electronic address: ejadams@uchicago.edu.
2
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA; Committee on Immunology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.

Abstract

The γδ T cell lineage in humans remains much of an enigma due to the low number of defined antigens, the non-canonical ways in which these cells respond to their environment and difficulty in tracking this population in vivo. In this review, we survey a comparative evolutionary analysis of the primate V, D and J gene segments and contrast these findings with recent progress in defining antigen recognition by different populations of γδ T cells in humans. Signatures of both purifying and diversifying selection at the Vδ and Vγ gene loci are placed into context of Vδ1+ γδ T cell recognition of CD1d presenting different lipids, and Vγ 9Vδ2 T cell modulation by pyrophosphate-based phosphoantigens through the butyrophilins BTN3A. From this comparison, it is clear that co-evolution between γδ TCRs and these ligands is likely occurring, but the diversity inherent in these recombined receptors is an important feature in ligand surveillance.

KEYWORDS:

B30.2; Butyrophilin; CD1d; Phosphoantigens; T cell receptor; T cells; Vdelta1; Vgamma9Vdelta2

PMID:
25991474
PMCID:
PMC4466157
DOI:
10.1016/j.cellimm.2015.04.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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