Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Public Health Nutr. 2016 Feb;19(2):293-307. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015001354. Epub 2015 May 20.

Health effects of cow's milk consumption in infants up to 3 years of age: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Author information

1
1Department for Evidence-based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology,Danube University Krems,Karl-Dorrek-Strasse 30,3500 Krems,Austria.
2
2AGES (Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety),Data,Statistics & Risk Assessment - Centre for Nutrition & Prevention,Vienna,Austria.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To summarize the best available evidence regarding the short- and long-term health effects of cow's milk intake in healthy, full-term infants up to 3 years of age.

DESIGN:

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis.

SETTING:

We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE and the Cochrane Library between 1960 and July 2013 and manually reviewed reference lists of pertinent articles. Two researchers independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles and extracted relevant data.

SUBJECTS:

We included (randomized/non-randomized) controlled trials and observational studies.

RESULTS:

We included data from twenty-three studies (one randomized controlled trial, four non-randomized controlled trials, eight case-control studies and ten cohort studies) for the evidence synthesis. Pooled results of four studies revealed a higher risk of Fe-deficiency anaemia for infants consuming cow's milk compared with those consuming follow-on formula (relative risk=3·76; 95 % CI 2·73, 5·19). For type 1 diabetes mellitus, six out of seven case-control studies did not show a difference in the risk of developing this disease based on the age of introduction of cow's milk. We did not find negative associations for other health effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cow's milk consumption in infancy is associated with an increased risk of developing Fe-deficiency anaemia. Limiting cow's milk consumption may be important to ensure an adequate Fe intake for infants and toddlers. High-quality patient information for caregivers is needed on how infants' Fe requirements can be met.

KEYWORDS:

Cow’s milk consumption; Infants; Systematic review

PMID:
25989719
DOI:
10.1017/S1368980015001354
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Cambridge University Press
Loading ...
Support Center