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World J Clin Cases. 2015 May 16;3(5):418-29. doi: 10.12998/wjcc.v3.i5.418.

Cardiovascular risk factors for acute stroke: Risk profiles in the different subtypes of ischemic stroke.

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AdriĆ  Arboix, Unit of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Service of Neurology, Hospital Universitari del Sagrat Cor, University of Barcelona, E-08029 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.


Timely diagnosis and control of cardiovascular risk factors is a priority objective for adequate primary and secondary prevention of acute stroke. Hypertension, atrial fibrillation and diabetes mellitus are the most common risk factors for acute cerebrovascular events, although novel risk factors, such as sleep-disordered breathing, inflammatory markers or carotid intima-media thickness have been identified. However, the cardiovascular risk factors profile differs according to the different subtypes of ischemic stroke. Atrial fibrillation and ischemic heart disease are more frequent in patients with cardioembolic infarction, hypertension and diabetes in patients with lacunar stroke, and vascular peripheral disease, hypertension, diabetes, previous transient ischemic attack and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with atherothrombotic infarction. This review aims to present updated data on risk factors for acute ischemic stroke as well as to describe the usefulness of new and emerging vascular risk factors in stroke patients.


Atrial fibrillation; Cardiovascular risk factors; Diabetes mellitus; Hypertension; Ischemic stroke; Sleep apnea; Transient ischemic attack

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