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Toxicon. 2015 Jul;101:85-91. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.05.007. Epub 2015 May 15.

Chemical analysis of Karenia papilionacea.

Author information

1
University of North Carolina, Center of Marine Science, Wilmington, NC, 28409, USA. Electronic address: Nlf7589@uncw.edu.
2
University of North Carolina, Center of Marine Science, Wilmington, NC, 28409, USA. Electronic address: Tomasc@uncw.edu.
3
University of North Carolina, Center of Marine Science, Wilmington, NC, 28409, USA. Electronic address: Baden@uncw.edu.
4
Texas A&M Univ, Dept Biol, College Stn, TX, 77843, USA. Electronic address: Lisacampbell@tamu.edu.
5
University of North Carolina, Center of Marine Science, Wilmington, NC, 28409, USA. Electronic address: Bourdelaisa@uncw.edu.

Abstract

One of the most widely studied organisms responsible for Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) is the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. This organism produces neurotoxic compounds known as brevetoxins. A related dinoflagellate, Karenia papilionacea, has been reported to occasionally co-bloom with K. brevis but has received little attention as a possible toxin producing species. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the toxin profile for K. papilionacea. A toxic fraction was identified using a cell based cytotoxicity assay and the toxin was isolated and identified as the ladder frame polyether brevetoxin-2 (PbTx-2) using mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Toxin production in K. papilionacea increased in response to hypoosmotic stress, as previously observed in K. brevis.

KEYWORDS:

Brevetoxin; HAB; Karenia brevis; Karenia papilionacea; Osmotic stress; Toxin isolation

PMID:
25981346
DOI:
10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.05.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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