Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Chromatogr A. 2015 Jun 26;1400:74-81. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2015.04.050. Epub 2015 May 1.

Metabolomic analysis of swine urine treated with β2-agonists by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

Author information

1
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China; College of Animal Science, Henan Institute of Science and Technology, Xinxiang, Henan 453003, PR China.
2
National Reference Laboratory of Veterinary Drug Residue (IVDC), China Institute of Drug Control, Beijing 100081, PR China.
3
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China.
4
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address: dingsy@cau.edu.cn.
5
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193, PR China. Electronic address: xxia@cau.edu.cn.

Abstract

The illegal use of β2-agonists in livestock production was previously detected by efficient methods based on mass spectrometry to control the residues of these drugs. Nevertheless, such methods still remain a challenging task for authorities who monitor these residues because the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of several substances as well as the synthesis of new compounds of unknown structure prevent efficient prevention of illegal use of growth-promoting agents. Here, we outlined a metabolomics-based strategy for detecting the use of "cocktails" composed of mixtures of low amounts of three β2-agonists via urine profiling. Urine profiles of controls and swine treated with mixture of low amounts of three substances (clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine) were analyzed with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The metabolic differences between controls and β2-agonists-treated groups were compared using multivariate data analysis. Fourteen metabolites were identified related with the β2-agonists treatment, while two co-biomarkers, 2-indolecarboxylic acid and fluorometholone acetate, either in single or "cocktails" of low-dose mixture of clenbuterol, salbutamol, and ractopamine, could be considered as diagnostic markers for the detection of illegal use of β2-agonists. The results of depletion study demonstrated that it is practical to use the markers for monitoring of β2-agonists.

KEYWORDS:

Biomarker; Cocktails; Metabolomics; Swine urine; β(2)-agonists

PMID:
25980694
DOI:
10.1016/j.chroma.2015.04.050
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center