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Conscious Cogn. 2015 Sep;35:78-87. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2015.04.024. Epub 2015 May 16.

Occipital long-interval paired pulse TMS leads to slow wave components in NREM sleep.

Author information

1
Institute of Public Law, University of Tartu (Tallinn Branch), Kaarli puiestee 3, Tallinn 10119, Estonia.
2
Institute of Public Law, University of Tartu (Tallinn Branch), Kaarli puiestee 3, Tallinn 10119, Estonia; Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Estonia.
3
Institute of Public Law, University of Tartu (Tallinn Branch), Kaarli puiestee 3, Tallinn 10119, Estonia. Electronic address: talis.bachmann@ut.ee.

Abstract

Neural correlates of conscious vs unconscious states can be studied by contrasting EEG markers of brain activity between those two states. Here, a task-free experimental setup was used to study the state dependent effects of occipital transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). EEG responses to single and paired pulse TMS with an inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) of 100 ms were investigated under Non-REM (NREM) sleep and wakefulness. In the paired pulse TMS condition adopting this long ISI, a robust positive deflection starting around 200 ms after the second pulse was found. This component was not obtained under wakefulness or when a single TMS pulse was applied in sleep. These findings are discussed in the context of NREM sleep slow waves. The present results indicate that the long interval paired-pulse paradigm could be used to manipulate plasticity processes in the visual cortex. The present setup might also become useful for evaluating states of consciousness.

KEYWORDS:

Consciousness; EEG; LICI; Paired-pulse TMS; Plasticity; Sleep; Slow waves; TMS

PMID:
25978462
DOI:
10.1016/j.concog.2015.04.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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