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Food Chem. 2015 Nov 1;186:277-84. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.151. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

The effects of juice processing on black mulberry antioxidants.

Author information

1
Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul Sabahattin Zaim University, Halkali, 34303 Istanbul, Turkey.
2
Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Food Engineering Department, Okan University, Akfirat-Tuzla, 34959 Istanbul, Turkey.
3
Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey.
4
Wageningen UR, Plant Research International, Bioscience, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.
5
Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Food Engineering Department, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 34469 Istanbul, Turkey. Electronic address: capanogl@itu.edu.tr.

Abstract

Black mulberry fruit is processed to juice at significant scale in Turkey. The effect of industrial-scale juice production on black mulberry antioxidants was evaluated using samples collected from the main steps of processing; including the selection of fruits, washing, mechanical milling, mashing, cold pressing, pasteurization, and filling-packing. Two major anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-rutinoside), two phenolic acids (3- and caffeoylquinic acid) and 3 flavonols (rutin, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside) were identified using LC-QTOF-MS and were quantified using HPLC. Approximately, 60-70% of the fruit anthocyanins were retained in the final juice, which also contained high levels of caffeoylquinic acids, relative to the fruit. Mashing and pressing were the steps which were effective for the recovery of fruit polyphenolics into the juice fraction. Moreover, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, applied to determine the effect of processing on the bioavailability of mulberry antioxidants, indicated a higher anthocyanin bioavailability for the fruit matrix than for the juice matrix.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant; Bioavailability; Black mulberry juice; In vitro gastrointestinal digestion; Processing

PMID:
25976822
DOI:
10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.11.151
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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