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Biol Direct. 2015 May 15;10:21. doi: 10.1186/s13062-015-0053-x.

The eukaryotic translation initiation regulator CDC123 defines a divergent clade of ATP-grasp enzymes with a predicted role in novel protein modifications.

Author information

1
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20894, USA. max.burroughs@nih.gov.
2
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20894, USA. zhangd3@ncbi.nlm.nih.gov.
3
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20894, USA. aravind@mail.nih.gov.

Abstract

Deciphering the origin of uniquely eukaryotic features of sub-cellular systems, such as the translation apparatus, is critical in reconstructing eukaryogenesis. One such feature is the highly conserved, but poorly understood, eukaryotic protein CDC123, which regulates the abundance of the eukaryotic translation initiation eIF2 complex and binds one of its components eIF2γ. We show that the eukaryotic protein CDC123 defines a novel clade of ATP-grasp enzymes distinguished from all other members of the superfamily by a RAGNYA domain with two conserved lysines (henceforth the R2K clade). Combining the available biochemical and genetic data on CDC123 with the inferred enzymatic function, we propose that the eukaryotic CDC123 proteins are likely to function as ATP-dependent protein-peptide ligases which modify proteins by ribosome-independent addition of an oligopeptide tag. We also show that the CDC123 family emerged first in bacteria where it appears to have diversified along with the two other families of the R2K clade. The bacterial CDC123 family members are of two distinct types, one found as part of type VI secretion systems which deliver polymorphic toxins and the other functioning as potential effectors delivered to amoeboid eukaryotic hosts. Representatives of the latter type have also been independently transferred to phylogenetically unrelated amoeboid eukaryotes and their nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses. Similarly, the two other prokaryotic R2K clade families are also proposed to participate in biological conflicts between bacteriophages and their hosts. These findings add further evidence to the recently proposed hypothesis that the horizontal transfer of enzymatic effectors from the bacterial endosymbionts of the stem eukaryotes played a fundamental role in the emergence of the characteristically eukaryotic regulatory systems and sub-cellular structures.

PMID:
25976611
PMCID:
PMC4431377
DOI:
10.1186/s13062-015-0053-x
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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